THE PLANNING ENVIRONMENT
The Planning Environment covers the Climate Profile, Climate Change Projections, and Hazard Characterization. Interpretations and presentations are based on limited historical data, interviews, observations/frequency analysis and past experience on disaster consequences. These informations, figures, facts, maps and some pictures are readily available and provided in these chapter.
3.1 PHYSICAL and SOCIO-ECONOMIC SITUATION
The interpretation of this chapter involves the present profile and status of the island province of Basilan from location, area, latest demography, physical structure, infrastructure and facilities, income and economic potentials, poverty situation, land use and the physical framework.
Mainstreaming the DRR and CCA is based on the events that had experienced, impact and the current situation of the province. It will show and provide disaster maps to accompany past disaster records and statistics. The maps should depict the spatial locations of population, physical and natural assets affected. Whereas, another topic is to analyze the significant Issues and Problems concerning the capacity of the LGUs to plan and implement DRR and CCA (i.e., institutional capacity weaknesses and gaps in planning and implementing DRR and CCA).
3.1.1 Location, Land Area, and Political Subdivisions
The province of Basilan is one of the island provinces of the Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao (ARMM) and is separated from the mainland of Mindanao by a strait of about 17 miles at its narrowest margin. As shown in the map below, Basilan is located across the southern tip of Zamboanga Peninsula (Region 9) and is bounded on the north by Basilan Strait, on the east by Moro Gulf, on the southeast by Celebes Sea and on the west by Sulu Sea. Geographically, it lies between latitudes 6o16’48” and 6o45’56” north and between longitudes 121o26’00” and 122o24’38” east.
22.214.171.124 Political Subdivisions
When Basilan Province became part of the ARMM per Republic Act No. 9054 (Expanded ARMM Law), it was composed of six (6) municipalities namely; Lamitan, Lantawan, Maluso, Sumisip, Tipo-Tipo and Tuburan. Isabela City opted not to be part of the ARMM.
However, in 2006 and 2007, the Fifth Legislative Assembly of ARMM approved the creation of additional municipalities following separate plebiscites in the municipalities of Tipo-Tipo, Tuburan, Lantawan, and Sumisip.
In 2006, Tipo-Tipo had two additional municipalities these are Ungkaya Pukan under Muslim Mindanao Autonomy Act (MMA Act) No. 190 and Al-Barka (MMA Act No. 191). For Tuburan came two more: Hadji Mohammad Ajul (MMA Act No. 192) and Akbar (MMA Act No. 193).
Subsequently, island municipalities were also created in 2007. These are Hadji Muhtamad Municipality (MMA Act No. 200) which was segregated from Lantawan Municipality and TABUAN-LASA Municipality (MMA Act No. 187) from Sumisip Municipality. On June 18, 2007, by virtue of Republic Act No. 9393, Lamitan became a component city, the second in the province.
126.96.36.199 Land Area
Basilan Province has a total land area of 3,677.15 square kilometers comprising island and islets within its territorial boundary including Isabela City. Basilan ranks third in terms of land area among the provinces of ARMM. The province is composed of two component cities and eleven municipalities.
Table 2 shows the segregation of land areas of each city and municipality of the province. The largest land area is occupied by Sumisip Municipality with 567.60 sq.km. or 15.43% followed by Tuburan with 546.00 sq.km. (14.85%) and Lantawan at 405.04 sq.km. (11.02%).
While the City of Lamitan cornered an area of 354.45 sq.km. (9.64%) higher than Isabela City with an area of 223.73 sq. km. (6.08%). Other municipalities are Maluso with 304.14 sq.km. (8.27%) Ungkaya Pukan with 257.03 sq.km. (6.99%), Tipo-Tipo at 217 sq.km. (5.90%), Hj. Moh. Ajul with 202.50 sq.km. (5.51%), Al-Barka at 188.70 sq.km (5.13%), Akbar with 182.70 sq.km. (4.95%), Hj. Muhtamad has 173.27 sq.km. (4.71%) and TABUAN-LASA with 55.68 sq.km (1.51%) the lowest among the municipalities.
Table 2 - Land Area Distribution by City/Municipality
3.1.2 Population and Settlements
Basilan province’s inclusion into the ARMM in August 2002 continues to pose significant challenges to provincial development planning. The need to rework benchmarks, factoring in the exclusion of Isabela City and its significant contributions to provincial economic growth, and reassessing data in the light of new political subdivisions exert pressure for new and revised growth plans relevant to existing situations.
Available population data, sourced from the 2010 census and the creation of the new cities and municipalities, is still used in presenting the population perspectives of Basilan’s development challenges. Hence, analysis presented here does not reflect whatever factors may have come into play since these political changes took place.
188.8.131.52 Population: Regional and National Context
The ARMM contributed only 2.89% or roughly 3.257 million of the country’s total population of 92.10 million, Table 3.
Basilan’s population accounted for only 9.00% of the total ARMM population, the lowest share among five provinces, in which Maguindanao has 944,718 or 29.00%; Lanao del Sur with 933,260 or 28.62%; Sulu at 719,290 or 22.10%; and Tawi-Tawi with 366,550 or 11.25%.
Among the provinces, Lanao del Sur (LDS) has the fastest Annual Population Growth Rate (APGR) of 3.38%, followed by Maguindanao (1.66%), Sulu (1.50%), Tawi-Tawi (1.29%), while Basilan has the slowest among the provinces with 1.22% more than double compared to LDS’s APGR. It is therefore, the slowest growing province in the region in terms of population. This is lower than the 3.78 percent APGR of the province between the census years 1990 and 2000.
Basilan’s population is projected to double in 56.56 years - the longest among the ARMM provinces, roughly 10 years behind of ARMM’s doubling time of 45.70 years, and 20 years gap than the country’s 36.32 years.
For density, Sulu Province is the most densely community in ARMM with the highest population density of 387 persons/sq km in 2010 census followed by Tawi-Tawi with 296 persons/sq km., Lanao del Sur with 162 persons/sq km., Maguindanao has 159 persons/sq km and Basilan has the lowest density of 85 persons/sq km.
Based on projection ARMM provinces will experience increase urban population growth due to the accessibility of services, businesses and other opportunities.
Table 3 - ARMM, Population, Annual Population Growth Rate (APGR), Land Area and Density by Province, Philippines, 2000 and 2010
184.108.40.206 Population Size, Density and Growth Rate
a. Size and Distribution
Lamitan City being the capital city of the province of Basilan under the Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao (ARMM) get the biggest share of population of 68,996 or around 23.52% of the province’s total 2010 population of 293,322 (excluding Isabela City), shown in Table 4.
The second largest population is the Municipality of Sumisip with 37,031 or 12.62% share. It is closely followed by Maluso Municipality with 33,803 constituents or around 11.52% share.
Other municipalities with corresponding population share are Lantawan with 20,087 (6.85%), Al-Barka with 19,523 (6.66%), Tuburan with 18,988 (6.47%), TABUAN-LASA with 18,635 (6.35%), Ungkaya Pukan with 17,701 (6.04%) Tipo-Tipo with 16,978 (5.79%), Moh. Ajul with 15,962 (5.44%) and Hj. Muhtamad got the lowest share of 12,249 residents (4.18%)
On the other hand, Isabela City although it is not under the ARMM political administration, it is worth to note that this component city remains to be a contributor of population growth and as the administrative center of the provincial government. It has a population share of 25.02% or 97,857 in respect to the province’s over-all total population of 391,179. The population of Isabela City is higher compared to Lamitan City.
However, both component cities are the primary axis of facilities, education, financing, trade and commerce in the island province.
b. Annual Population Growth Rate (APGR)
Comparing the 2000 and 2010 population growth rate, the fastest growing areas are the municipalities of Hj. Muhtamad and Akbar with an annual population growth rate (APGR) of 2.81% and 2.37%, respectively. Followed by Al-Barka at 1.27% and Tipo-Tipo with 1.22%. Remaining municipalities namely Lantawan, Maluso, Tuburan, Ungkaya Pukan, Hj. Mohammad Ajul and TABUAN-LASA has an APGR lower than 1%. The lowest annual population growth rate recorded is the municipality of Sumisip with 0.65%, Table 4 and Map 5.
In the case of Lamitan City the APGR for 2000-2010 is recorded at 1.63% lower compared to Isabela City with 2.97%. Note that the two component cities is the metro point of all different people in the society, be it traders, commoners, students, military and police, transients, businessmen and among others. As an overall APGR for the province of Basilan shows at 1.63% lower compared to other provinces in ARMM.
c. 2007 Population Discrepancies
Basilan experienced a rapid increase in population; between 2000 and 2007, the population increased by 163,675, from 332,828 to 496,503, whereas it only rose by 37,263 between 1995 and 2000. A corresponding increase in the number of households was also registered, from 55,137 in 1995 to 61,546 in 2000. This resulted to an average household size of 5.4 persons, higher than the national average of five.
Of the seven original municipalities in Basilan as of May 1, 2000, Isabela, the capital of the province, was the largest in terms of population with 73,032 persons or 21.94% of the provincial total. It was followed by Lamitan (17.64%), Sumisip (15.23%), Tipo-Tipo (14.50%), and Tuburan (12.78%). Lantawan and Maluso, on the other hand, had less than 10% each.
By 2007, the three largest local government units (LGUs) saw their shares of the population fall relative to neighboring communities; Isabela City fell to 17.72% of Basilan's total population despite remaining the most densely populated area on the island. Lamitan is now only at 16.53% (-1.11%). Old Sumisip (two municipalities with a population of 71,807), with the biggest aggregate land area, fell to 14.46% (-0.77%). Meanwhile, Old Tipo-Tipo (three municipalities: 83,249 pop.) rose to 16.75% (+2.25%) and is now bigger than Lamitan, while Old Tuburan (three municipalities: 73,942 pop.) is 14.89% (+2.11%) and is now bigger than Old Sumisip. Old Lantawan (two municipalities: 49,270 pop.) is at 9.92%, while Maluso (48,175 pop.) comprises 9.7% of the total.
The seven-year increases are widely disparate, which explains the 2000–2007 percentage figures stated above. In Isabela City, the population growth was 20.47% (+2.92% per annum; 73,032 in 2000, to 87,985 in 2007), slower when compared to the newly created Akbar Municipality, scene of many of the latest gun-battles between government troops and Moro separatist groups. The municipality's seven-year population growth was 101.42% (+14.48% per annum; 10,581 in 2000 to 21,312 in 2007). The average aggregate annual population increase in the seven-year period for the ten municipalities and one city that comprise Basilan was 9.12%. By comparison, that of the rest of the Philippines was only 2.3%.
This result may be used for the forthcoming National census.
These figures are derived from the National Statistics and Coordination Board and National Statistics Office of the Philippines.
Table 4 - Basilan Population, Annual Population Growth Rate, by City/Municipality, 2000 and 2010
d. Average Household Size
The number of households in 2010 was recorded at 51,552, higher by 3,759 households compared with the 47,793 households posted in 2000 refer Table 5. The average household size in 2010 was 5.7 persons, higher than the average household size of 5.4 persons in 2000.
Table 5 - Household Population, Number of Households, and Average Household Size Basilan (excluding City of Isabela), 2000 and 2010
MAP 3 - ANNUAL POPULATION GROWTH RATE MAP, 1980-1990
MAP 4 - ANNUAL POPULATION GROWTH RATE MAP, 1990 -2000
MAP 5 - ANNUAL POPULATION GROWTH RATE MAP, 2000- 2010
e. Male and Female Population
Of the 293,322 household populations in 2010, males accounted for 50.1 percent while females comprised 49.9 percent. These figures resulted in a sex ratio of 100 males for every 100 females. In 2000, the recorded sex ratio was the same as that in 2010.
Table 6 - Population by Male and Female, by City/ Municipality, 2000 and 2010
Basilan's population is 65% Muslim and 35% Christian (33% Catholic, Protestants at 3% and 2% Other sector).
A majority of Basilan's Muslims are concentrated on the island's southern slopes. Christians reside mostly in the urban centers of Isabela and Lamitan on the island's northern coast, where they constitute a majority. Sizable Christian settlements are also found in the former multi-national plantations, for example Tairan, Lantawan; Tumahubong, Sumisip; Maluso Townsite, Maluso. The rest have a mixture of both Muslim and Christian beliefs.
g. Indigenouos Persons (IPs), Language or Dialect Groupings
Based on the NCIP consolidated list of Barangays which are thickly populated with IPs/ICCs with corresponding and authentic data on IP Census in the province of Basilan, the total IPs population is 232,759. Wherein, Lamitan City got a share of 17.81% (41,443), followed by Sumisip Municipality with 15.48% (36,038), and Isabela City at 9.24% (21,513).
Remaining municipalities are Al-Barka with 8.39% (19,523), Tuburan has 8.28% (19,268), Tipo-Tipo with 7.30% (16,990), Ungkaya Pukan has 7.60% (17,701), Hj. Moh at 6.86% (15,962), Tabuan-Lasa at 5.85% (13,628), Maluso with 2.55% (5,932), and Hj. Muhtamad has 1.90% (4,424) as of October 10, 2014.
In terms of spoken language shown in Table 7, Yakan is the major mother tongue spoken at 42.07% of the population. Second is Tausug with 23.41%, followed by Chavacano with 12.5%, and Sama at 9.90%. The rest are Cebuano, Badjao, and other ethnic groups.
Table 7 – Ethnicity by Dialect Groupings, 2010
h. Median Age
In 2010, the median age of the population of the province was 17.4 years, which means that half of the population was younger than 17.4 years. This is lower than the median age of 18.1 years that was recorded in 2000.
Moreover, 44.6 percent of the household population was under 15 years old. Children aged 5 to 9 years (15.8 percent) comprised the largest age group, followed by those in the age groups 0 to 4 years (14.6 percent) and 10 to 14 years (14.3 percent). Males outnumbered females in the age groups 0 to 14 years, 40 to 64 years, and 70 to 74 years. On the other hand, there were more females than males in the age groups 15 to 39 years, 65 to 69 years, and 75 years and over, sourced at Figure 1, Philippine Statistics Authority-NSO.
Comparing the municipalities as shown in Table 8, TABUAN-LASA is the most densely community in the province with the highest population density of 335 persons/sq km in 2010 census followed by Maluso with 111 persons/sq km and Al-Barka with 104 persons/sq km.
The rest of the municipalities had registered low population densities; Moh. Ajul has 79 persons/sq km, Tipo-Tipo with 78 persons/sq km, Akbar has 74 persons/sq km, Hj. Muhtamad had 71 persons/sq km, Ungkaya Pukan at 69 persons/sq km., Sumisip Municipality with 65 person/sq km, Lantawan has 50 persons/sq km, and the lowest density is the municipality of Tuburan with only 35 persons/sq km.
While Isabela and Lamitan cities have a population density of 437 persons/sq km and 195 persons/sq km, respectively. It is projected that both cities will experience increase urban population growth due to the accessibility of services, businesses and other opportunities.
Density Maps (Map 6 - 1990, Map 7 - 2000 and Map 8- 2010) show the changes in the population densities from 1990 – 2010.
In Map 6, the highest density settlements are the cities of Isabela and Lamitan. These are followed by Maluso and Tipo-Tipo Municipalities.
Map 7 illustrates that Isabela City is still the densely populated settlement which has been brought about by migration due to perceive opportunities and center of services. Surprisingly the emergence of Maluso and Tuburan municipalities as the next highest densely populated settlements, it implies that the areas are relatively peaceful as well as orderly and people are engaged livelihood activities.
However, Map 8 shows that TABUAN-LASA, Maluso and Al-Barka municipalites are densely populated communities and visibly increased their population density compared to 2000 and 2010. In the case of Maluso influx of populace is due to its opportunity as the fishing capital of the province.
MAP 6 – DENSITY MAP 1990 PROVINCE OF BASILAN
MAP 7 - DENSITY MAP 2000 PROVINCE OF BASILAN
MAP 8 - DENSITY MAP 2010 PROVINCE OF BASILAN
j. Relationship between the Population Densities and Growth
1. High Density and Fast-Growing Settlements:
Isabela City and Lamitan City
The dominance of the two component cities in the province is anchored on its being the hub of provincial governance and ARMM Provincial Offices, economic activities, accessibility of facilities and presence of education and financial institutions.
Lamitan City is not the highest densely settlement in 2000 census, but it exhibited a fast growth patterns in 2010.
2. Low density and Fast-Growing Settlements:
Akbar, Hj. Muhtamad, Al-Barka, Lantawan, and Tipo-Tipo Municipalities
There are still huge area for expansion and development of the identified communities who were registered as fast growing settlements. Despite of it, economic opportunities and social services has not reach fully recognized and implemented due to peace and order situation.
3. High density and Slow-Growing Settlements:
Maluso, TABUAN-LASA and Tuburan Municipalities
These municipalities are basically dependent on agriculture and fishing but despite limited economic activities, it registered the highest population density in 2010. Non-intervention of business development and services affects the slow growth of the municipality.
However, Maluso Municipality is aggressively growing community owing to its being the fishing industry capital of the province. Maluso has the distinction of operating the lone fishing port in the province. While Al-Barka’s growth is being confined due to series of atrocities which generally affects the whole community in particular and the entire province in general. Note that until todate, Al-Barka has not received any regular funds such as IRA.
4. Low density and Slow-Growing Settlements:
Sumisip and Ungkaya Pukan Municipalities
Considering these towns are highly agricultural producing communities, it still recorded a slow growth settlement. Wherein, goods and services are practically dependent on the identified economic growth centers of the province.
k. Densities and Growth Rates
With the current growth rate of 2010 census, the estimated total population and overall density at the end of plan period (2023) of the province are 484,706 and 138 persons/sq km, respectively. This will account for the projected additional population of 206,444 or an average increase of 7,615 persons per year.
Showing noticeable increases are the cities of Isabela and Lamitan, it is projected that both cities will experience increase population growth due to the accessibility of services, businesses and other opportunities.
While the Municipalities of Akbar, Hj. Muhtamad, Al-Barka, Lantawan and Tipo-Tipo posted a significant increase of population in 2010 census. Although these municipalities are known to be a conflict area, opportunities for development are expected due to the rich agricultural and marine resources.
l. Urban-Rural Characteristics
Noticeably, only Maluso has recorded a massive increase of 13,740 or 190.96% of urban population from 7,195 in 2000 census to 20,935 in 2010 refer Table 9. While the rural population dramatically decreased by almost one-half from 23,359 in 2000 to 12,869 in 2010. This is due to movement of residents and the slowly growth/development of some barangays.
Next is Isabela City with an urban population of 52,691 in 2010 or an increase of 24,915 or 89.70% from 27,776 of 2000 census. Note that the rural population of Isabela City has also decreased a minimal of 90 from 45,256 in 2000 to 45,166 in 2010, as presented in Table 10 and Map 9.
On the other hand, Lamitan City has an urban population of 27,993 in 2010, an increase of 12,552 or 81.29% compared to 2000 census of 15,441. While rural population decreased by 2,263 or 5.23% from 43,266 in 2000 to 41,003 in 2010.
For Sumisip Municipality, the urban population increased by 33.85% or around 1,956 from 5,779 in 2000 census to 7,735 in 2010. While Tipo-Tipo Municipality has 18.25% or 1,092 increased of urban population from 5,982 in 2000 census to 7,074 in 2010.
Considering the municipalities of Ungkaya Pukan and Al-Barka was created from Tipo-Tipo Municipality it still recorded an increase of urban population with 32.55% and 28.78%, respectively.
While Hj. Moh Ajul (25.78%) and Akbar (0.19%) Municipalities was formed from Tuburan Municipality (52.78%), all the three communities enjoyed an increase of urban population, Table 9.
Only Lantawan Municipality has recorded a decrease of urban population by -625 or -13.36% from 4,679 in 2000 census to 4,054 in 2010. Main reason is that, in 2007 Lantawan was divided into two municipalities, in which the island urban barangay (Pilas Island) was included in Hj. Muhtamad Municipality wherein it recorded an increase of 3.84% (58) from 1,509 in 2000 census to 1,567 in 2010.
Table 9 : Total Population by Urban-Rural by City/Municipality, 2000 and 2010
MAP 9 – URBAN and RURAL POPULATION MAP 2000
MAP 10 – URBAN and RURAL POPULATION MAP 2010 PROVINCE OF BASILAN
m. Overall Trends
The component cities of Isabela and Lamitan exhibited fast growth patterns. The dominance of the two cities is attributed to its being the center of provincial governance and ARMM Provincial Offices, economic hub, accessibility of facilities and presence of education and financial institutions.
Economically, Isabela City serves the municipalities of Sumisip, Maluso, Lantawan, Hj. Muhtamad and part of Lamitan City. While Lamitan, is increasingly becoming another center of economic activities on the eastern part of the island because of the existence of support utilities and public economic enterprises which cater the other six municipalities of Tuburan, Hj. Mohammad Ajul, Akbar, Tipo-Tipo, Ungkaya Pukan and Al-Barka.
At the southwestern part of the island province, Maluso is also an aggressive growing municipality because it serves as the fishing capital. It is also the lone municipality that operates a fishing port.
The nearby major urban center that supports the province of Basilan is Zamboanga City which is the agro-industrial center of Zamboanga Peninsula.
3.1.3 Settlement Patterns
220.127.116.11 Existing Settlement Pattern
The existing settlement patterns is a two-level hierarchy, refer Figure 2 and Map 11, with a population a little over 200,000, the levels may be described as follows:
- Those towns with population above 50,000 are classified as Medium Towns.
- Towns with less than 50,000 population are considered Small Towns; and
18.104.22.168 Hierarchy of Settlements
1. Medium Towns: Isabela City, Lamitan City
With a population of more than 50,000, Isabela and Lamitan Cities are the centers of the province that serve most of inter-regional linkages. Although Isabela City is not under the Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao (ARMM) it’s a major contributor to the good and services of the province besides of being the focal of provincial administration, Figure 2.
2. Small Towns: Sumisip, Tuburan, Tipo-Tipo, Maluso, Ungkaya Pukan, Al-Barka, Akbar, Hj. Moh. Ajul, Hj. Muhtamad, TABUAN-LASA and Lantawan Municipalities
The rest of the provincial municipalities are below 50,000 population. These municipalities are fast growing settlements during the past decades. As a whole, these small towns are still dependent on the component cities of the province. While Sumisip settlement is catching up due to the existence of rubber cooperatives.
22.214.171.124 Migration Patterns
Accounted are the presence of military personnel, some traders, students, professionals, and movement of populace from rural to urban areas considering the opportunities and services that are readily available. For some LGUs including the ARMM Government, presence and extension of offices is also located in Isabela and Lamitan Cities due to the accessibility of financial resources, trade and commerce and services.
Figure 2 – Population Size by City/Municipality, 2010
MAP 11 – HIERARCHY MAP PROVINCE OF BASILAN
- Basilan province has a population of 293,322 (2010 Census-excluding Isabela City) and is the lowest among the five provinces of the ARMM with only 9.00% share of the regional population of more than 3.257 million.
- Of the total population, 51,552 households were recorded, males accounted for 50.1 percent while females comprised 49.9 percent. Wherein, 65% are Muslims (Islam) and 35% are Christians (33% Catholic, Protestants at 3% and 2% Other sector).
- With a population density of 85 persons/sq km the province is less densely community among the five provinces in ARMM and lower compared to the whole region at 116 persons/sq km and the national average of 299 persons/ sq km.
- Basilan has slowest APGR of 1.22% more than double compared to 3.78 percent APGR of the province between the census years 2000 and 2010.
- Basilan’s population is projected to double in 56.56 years - the longest among the ARMM provinces, roughly 10 years behind of ARMM’s doubling time of 45.70 years, and 20 years gap than the country’s 36.32 years
3.2.1 General Land and Water Characteristics and Resources
126.96.36.199 Topography and Slope
Basilan mainly has a rolling terrain with the flat lands located mostly along the coastal areas and the slope becomes stiffer as it goes into the central highlands. Map 12 shows that Basilan Peak is the highest point of the province with an elevation of 960 meters above sea level, while the coastal areas of the islands and islets recorded the lowest point of 20 meters elevation
In terms of slope variation, Map 12 indicates that about 40% of the land area is considered lowlands ranging from 0-8% slope and are areas mostly along the coastline. While 48% are identified as highlands (8-30%) and about 12% are categorized in the uplands (30% up) and are mostly located in the central hinterlands.
The slope distribution of Basilan is shown below with the biggest share of the land area of 49,476 km is highland and with a slope of 8-18%.
The soil of Basilan is predominantly of Bulaoen clay with few Bancal clay loam. In its central parts of the mountain, soils are undifferentiated.
188.8.131.52 Land and Water Resources
The province is composed of more or less 52 islands and islets with the main island of Basilan at its core containing area of 130,623.56 hectares and the smallest of which is Gaunan Island with an area of 2,500 ha. Table 10 shows the list of island and islets within the territory of Basilan Province.
The province is blessed with abundant water resources such as rivers and springs which are used to supply potable water needs of its populace. The springs at Barangay Arco are the source of water supply of Lamitan City while the spring sources at Barangay Kabunbata and Panunsulan are sources of potable water of Isabela City. Other water spring sources are also being tapped by other municipalities in the province. These are mostly gravity driven water systems. At present, these water sources have adequate forest cover but are critically threatened for denudation where illegal loggers are proliferating in the remote hinterlands.
Map 12 – Relative Location of the Basilan Peak
Table 10 - List of Islands and Islets, 2012
Rivers and streams and other tributaries are also important water resources since these are vital in the settlement patterns of the population. Rivers like the Gubawan River in Lamitan Municipality and Aguada River in Isabela City are just some of the rivers where people used to thrive as these are vital sources for agriculture and commerce. In terms of length, Kumalarang River is the longest major river in the province with a total length of 19.50 km. Table 11 shows the list of major rivers of Basilan.
Table 11 - List of Major Rivers, 2013
The surrounding territorial waters of the province provides livelihood to the fisherfolks who are residing along the coastal areas of the mainland and the different islets in the peripherals, Map 13. The province boasts its vast fishing grounds with abundant fish species.
MAP 13 – DRAINAGE PATTERN MAP
184.108.40.206 Geologic and Soil Resources
Geologic data gathered from the Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR) provided limited information of the rock formation and composition in the province.
The oldest rock unit present in the province consisted of quarternary volcanic. They occur as lava flows and pyroclastics, some of which are associated with tuffaceous clastic rocks. Their composition generally ranges from basaltic to andesitic and dacitic. A few of these basaltic volcanic cones, plugs and stratovolcanoes marked centers of ancient activity.
Another geologic formation is the alluviums which is made of eroded materials from pre-existing rocks and were deposited along river channels especially the lower reaches and flood plains. This type of deposit is located mostly on the northern portion of the province.
220.127.116.11 Mineral Resources
At present, no geologic studies have been conducted by the Mines and GeoSciences Bureau under the DENR in the province of Basilan, hence no data on the mineral potentials of the province is available.
3.2.2 Land Use Potentials and Constraints
18.104.22.168 Land Classification
The DENR has declared a total of 1,008.42 square kilometers as Certified Alienable and Disposable (A & D), way beyond the accepted practice of retaining 50% of land resources as forestland for ecological purposes refer Table 12. Timberland/Forestland covered 371.61 sq.km., this is composed of buffer zone, communal forest, forest reserve,mangroves, fishpond and the basilan national biotic area (BNBA) refer Map 14.
As of to date, the DENR-ARMM in collaboration with DENR National Office has an on-going cadastral/boundaries survey covering the entire province of Basilan. This will be the basis for the DENR-Bureau of Lands to settle the conflict declaration of areas per localities. No initial data has been released, Table 13.
Table 12 - Land Classification, 2008
22.214.171.124 Land Suitability
Land suitability is a classification of land characteristics that could satisfy the environment requirements of specific crops without unnecessarily deteriorating soil productivity. This is determined and prepared by the use of Land Management Unit (LMU) maps of the Bureau of Soil and Water Management (BSWM) which show the vital characteristics and overlaid it with the land suitability criteria of the categorized land uses.
In defining the land suitability categories, each LMU is identified based on its form use where the most intensive land use rank 1=highest followed by the less intensive. The following slope criteria may be used to derive basic land suitability although the general principle is to confine the most intensive land use preferably within the 0-8% slopes:
The existing land suitability shows that 33.3% of the production land which is actually the biggest area is suitable for perennial trees and crops of which 12% is located within forestland, refer Map 15. In areas with slope lower than 8%, the suitable crops that could be grown are annual crops or commonly referred to as cash crops and irrigated rice.
Area suited for forestry plantation and production forest that had relatively higher slopes measured to 5,748.50 ha, but about 44% of this area is within the alienable and disposable lands.
Based on the above mentioned facts, it is evident that there are areas suite for agricultural cultivation that are classified as forestland. On the other hand, there are also areas suited for forest production but likewise classified as alienable and disposable lands. These would indicate that in the past, the process of reclassifying lands did not involve critical investigation as to the suitability of the land.
MAP 14 – VEGETATIVE MAP
MAP 15 – LAND CLASIFICATION MAP
MAP 16– LAND SUITABILITY MAP
126.96.36.199 Protection Areas
Protection land is that portion of land and water set aside for its unique physical and biological significance, manages to enhance biological diversity and protected against destructive human influences or impact. Protected land may be categorized into three general categories, namely: those falling with National Integrated Protected Areas System (NIPAS) as defined under R,A. 7586, non-NIPAS, and environmentally constrained areas, among others. Map 17 indicates the protected areas of Basilan.
a. NIPAS area
Most of the lands classified under the protection areas were identified under NIPAS Law.
Areas subject to severe erosion are also considered protection lands and categorized as Non-NIPAS.
The other protection lands being identified are previously mentioned under environmentally constrained areas which specifically are the Network of Protected Agricultural Areas and/or the Network of Areas for Agricultural Development (NPAA/NAAD) highly restricted agricultural lands.
Basilan Natural Biotic Area (BNBA) and Old Growth Forest
The Old Growth Forest is located within the Resettlement Area distributed to the rebel returnees under the Comprehensive Agrarian Reform Program that covers 9,667.60 hectares. Illegal logging activities in this area are rampant because it has been a haven of the lawless elements that derived income out of it. However, some settlers in the area are already engaging in rubber tree planting, Map 18.
b. Non-NIPAS areas
Non-NIPAS areas consist of reserved second growth forest that are situated in areas above 1,000 m elevation or those in slopes greater than 50%, mangrove forest, buffer strips, lakes and other inland water bodies, and severely eroded areas.
Identified forest reserve is estimated at 22.91 square kilometers with a proposed reforestration project of 20.11 sq.km. Intrusions into the mangrove forest were done by illegal fishpond owners. This covers an area of about 2,158 hectares. Severely eroded areas which were mostly identified within the defined forestland are presently devoted to agriculture, which is relatively considered critical encroachment in the area, Map 17.
Likewise, buffer strips along river banks are also considered as protected areas, but as far as the province is concerned, its protection is only laid and not in actuality, Table 13.
c. The Indigenous Peoples’ Rights Act of 1997 (Republic Act No. 8371)
- Certificate of Ancestral Domain Title (CADT) was already awarded by NCIP in 2005
- Found in Pilas Island, Hadji Muhtamad Mun.
- Application for ancestral domain titling is on going in some areas of Sahaya cluster such as in:
- Boheh Yawas, Lamitan
- Baiwas, Sumisip
- Sitio Beggok, Mangal, Sumisip
MAP 17 – PROTECTION LAND MAP
MAP 18 – BASILAN NATURAL BIOTIC AREA
3.3.1 Economic Structure
The economic conditions as presented in this section quantifies the transaction taking place in the province, especially those relating to the income, production, employment, and services. The employment sector plays a vital role in the continuing development of the province, particularly towards improvement in the economic well-being of the population.
Contained are data on the family income, size, composition and distribution of employed persons that are categorized by industry sub‑sectors, labor force characteristics and employment projection.
Data are from the Regional Gross Domestic Product (RGDP) of the National Statistical Coordination Board (NSCB) that dis‐aggregate the GDP by industrial origin and by region. However, no baseline data, references or statistics that can be retrieved covering the province.
188.8.131.52 National and Regional Context
a) Formal Economy: Industrial structure of the ARMM
The formal economy of the Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao (ARMM) is valued at PhP48 billion as of 2012, of which 61.9 percent can be attributed to the agriculture, forestry and fishing sector. The service sector is the second largest contributing 32.8 percent, while Industry contributes a meager share at 5.3 percent. The Services sector grew by 6.3 percent in 2012 from 1.4 percent in 2011.
The regional economy in ARMM recovered from a negative 0.3% in 2011 to 1.2% in 2012, refer Table 14. The services sector managed to keep the region’s economy afloat by cushioning the lackluster performances of the agriculture, fishery, forestry and other industry sectors.
In terms of share to the national GDP growth of 6.8 percent in 2012, NCR contributed 2.6 percentage points, followed by CALABARZON with 1.2 percentage points and Central Luzon with 0.6 percentage point. ARMM, on the other hand, had a meager contribution of 0.01 percentage point.
The top five fastest growing regions in 2012 also included Caraga with 10.6 percent; Central Visayas, 9.3 percent; Cagayan Valley, 8.2 percent; and SOCCSKSARGEN with 8.1 percent. On the other hand, the economy of Eastern Visayas contracted by 6.2 percent in 2012 from a 2.1 percent growth in 2011.
b) Gross Regional Domestic Product
In terms of share to the national GDP growth of 6.8 percent in 2012, NCR contributed 2.6 percentage points, followed by CALABARZON with 1.2 percentage points and Central Luzon with 0.6 percentage point. ARMM, on the other hand, had a meager contribution of 0.01 percentage point.
The top five fastest growing regions in 2012 also included Caraga with 10.6 percent; Central Visayas, 9.3 percent; Cagayan Valley, 8.2 percent; and SOCCSKSARGEN with 8.1 percent. On the other hand, the economy of Eastern Visayas contracted by 6.2 percent in 2012 from a 2.1 percent growth in 2011.
The average real per capita GDP of the Philippines increased by 5.0 percent or from PhP62,739.00 in 2011 to PhP65,904.00 in 2012.
NCR posted the highest per capita GRDP at PhP183,747.00 nearly three times the national average. This level of per capita GRDP was 5.6 percent more than NCR’s per capita GRDP in 2011. Aside from NCR, two other regions, CALABARZON and CAR likewise had per capita GRDP higher than the national average at PhP82,393 and PhP73,573, respectively.
Meanwhile, ARMM had the lowest per capita GRDP among the regions at PhP14,321.00.
Table 14 : Gross Regional Domestic Product, 2011 and 2012 Growth Rates, in Percent (at constant 2000 prices)
3.3.2 Employment and Income
This section will show the characteristics of the level of income, employment and the extent of access to goods and basic services including poverty status. Source: National Statistics Office, Labor Force Survey, Employment and Income situation 2013.
184.108.40.206 National/Regional Employment/Unemployment
The population aged 15 years and over in October 2013 was estimated at 64.414 million. Out of this number, 41.2 million persons were in the labor force. The labor force consists of the employed and the unemployed persons. The labor force participation rate in October 2013 is estimated at 63.9 percent. The estimate of LFPR for October 2012 is also 63.9 percent. .
Among the regions, Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao had the lowest LFPR with 57.2 percent. Other regions having an LFPR lower than the national figure are Ilocos Region (60.8%), Central Luzon (62.1%), and Western Visayas (62.1%), Table 15.
Table 15 - Labor Force Participation, Employment, Unemployment, and Underemployment Rates, by Region: October 2013
The ARMM regional labor force as of October 2013 had recorded a total of 2,321,000 or a 54.54% increase compared in 2003 with 1,055,000 labor force. The increase was due to the massive effort of Regional Government in promoting investment in the whole region.
Comparatively, however, the regional employment rate in 2013 was pegged at 96.40% or an increase of 4.70% compared to 90.90% in 2003.
220.127.116.11 Provincial Employment
Among the provinces in ARMM, the province of Tawi-Tawi marked the highest employment rate of 98.70% followed by Maguindanao province with 98.50%, Sulu with 97.90%. While, Basilan province had 91.70% and the lowest is Lanao del Sur with 91.00%, Table 16.
Labor force participation rate (LFPR) refers to the actual number of people who are either employed or are actively looking for work. Wherein, Basilan province posted the lowest LFPR with 43.90% while Maguindanao pegged at 74.40% considering the province advantages in terms of land area and population, subsequently followed by Tawi-Tawi (71.6040%), Lanao del Sur (49.80%), and Sulu (44.10%).
However, ARMM employment rate registered at 96.40% slightly higher compared to the whole country with 93.60%. While the labor force participation rate of ARMM registered at 57.20% much lower than the country’s LFPR with 63.90%.
Table 16 - Employment, Rates Labor Force Participation Rates by Province: October 2013
18.104.22.168 Family Income & Expenditure (FIE)
For family income and expenditure, ARMM recorded an average family income of PhP113,000.00 with PhP98,000.00 expenditure or 86.72% expenses slightly higher compared to the country’s 85.44%.
Of the five provinces in ARMM, Lanao del Sur registered the highest average family income of PhP131,981.00 (PhP110,956 or 84.10% expenditures) in 2009 followed by Tawi-Tawi with PhP123,225.00 (PhP100,621 or 81.66% expenditures), Table 17. While Basilan generates an average family income of PhP110,455.00 (PhP93,554 or 84.70% expenditures) then Sulu (PhP109,666.00) and Maguindanao (PhP95,946.00).
Table 17. Total and Average Income per Province, ARMM 2009
22.214.171.124 Poverty Threshold
For 2012, the annual per capita poverty threshold or the amount required to satisfy food and non-food basic needs of a person in the region was PhP20,517.00 or 18.70% increase compared to the 2009 figure of PhP16,683.00. Of the five provinces, Lanao del Sur had the highest annual per capita poverty threshold of PhP22,665.00 followed by Sulu (PhP20,477.00), Maguindanao (PhP18,873.00) and Tawi-Tawi (PhP17,406.00), Table 18.
In the same year, Basilan Province had an annual per capita poverty threshold of PhP19,368.00 or 16.10% higher than the 2009 level of PhP16,256.00. On a daily basis, an averaged sized family would need about PhP645.60 to meet its family’s basic needs.
Table 18 - Annual Per Capita Poverty Threshold, Poverty Incidence and Magnitude of Poor Families 2006-2009-2012
126.96.36.199 Regional Poverty Incidence
The Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao (ARMM) posted the highest poverty incidence among families in the country’s 17 regions nationwide in 2012, with Lanao del Sur posting the highest at 67.30% and Maguindanao at 54.50%, Table 18.
Wherein, Lanao del Sur’s poverty incidence rose by 18.6%, from 48.7% in 2009 to 67.3% in 2012. While Maguindanao province had 43.3% in 2009 rose to 54.5% in 2012. Sulu’s increases from 35.5% in 2009 to 40.2% in 2012; and Basilan increased by 3.30% from 28.8% in 2009 to 32.1% in 2012.
On the hand, Tawi-Tawi posted the most dramatic drop at 28.33% from 50.23% in 2006 to 21.9% in 2012. Overall, Tawi-tawi has the lowest poverty incidence among the 26 provinces in Mindanao. (MindaNews/26 April).
The Philippines’ poverty incidence among families was 21.0% in 2006, 21.0% in 2009 and 19.7% in 2012.
188.8.131.52 Provincial Poverty Incidence
Basilan Province recorded a poverty incidence of 32.50% lower than the whole ARMM (48.70%) but almost double than the country’s 19.70%. Poverty incidence in the rural community was much pronounced than that in the urban centers. Isabela City registered the lowest poverty incident of 19.40% followed by Lamitan City with 20.5% Lantawan Municipality with 28.2% refer Table 19 and Map 19.
Other municipalities, Ungkaya Pukan (30.4%), Tabuan Lasa (31.0%), Tipo-Tipo (31.6%), Albarka and Hj. Moh. Ajul (32.3), Akbar (35.9%) and Maluso and Sumisip (36.7%). While Tuburan Municipality posted the highest poverty incidence with 43.6%.
184.108.40.206 Human Development Index (HDI)
Nine of the 10 bottom provinces in human development from 1997 to 2009 are all in Mindanao and four (4) of which are in ARMM. Sulu scored the lowest Human Development Index (HDI) with only 0.266 compared to Maguindanao (0.312), Tawi-Tawi (0.322) and Lanao Del Sur (0.432). While Basilan province is not on the bottom has registered an HDI of 0.478. Results was pronounced by the United Nations Development Programme's (UNDP) 2012/2013 Philippine Human Development Report (PHDR).
The report, which analyzed the human development index (HDI) of all the provinces in the country, showed the inequality across regions in the country, along with the slow pace of development during the period covered, UNDP said. HDI is a measure of human development computed using factors that include a long and healthy life, knowledge and a decent standard of living. An ideal HDI should be close to 1.
Table 19 - Poverty Incidence by City/Municipality, 2012
3.3.4 Local Competitive Advantages
Agriculture and fishery is the foundation of the province’s economy. A large proportion of those employed are engaged in farming and fishery production. Stated below are the indicative data and other statistics sourced-out from concerned agencies.
a) Palay Production
The province has a total rice field area of 957.95 hectares both irrigated and rainfed/upland areas. Of the total area Lamitan City has 664.95 hectares or around 69.40% share, followed by Sumisip municipality with 200 hectares (20.90%), Lantawan with 84 hectares (8.80%). While the municipalities of Maluso, Tipo-Tipo and Ungkaya Pukan has 3 hectares each (0.3%)
On the other hand, the municipalities of Hj. Muhtamad, TABUAN-LASA, Albarka, Tuburan, Akbar, Hj. Moh. Ajul, are generally dependent of outside source/supply, since the former’s rice fields are all rain-fed, Table 20. Palay production in Basilan province for 2013 was recorded at 2,199.52 MT for irrigated areas and 644.42 MT for rainfed/upland areas. The average yield for irrigated farm was recorded at 3.1 metric tons per hectare while for rainfed/upland areas had registered an average yield of 2.6 metric tons.
b) Corn Production
The total area devoted to corn production in the province is around 351.50 hectares Yellow and white corns are mostly planted in upland areas and usually intercropped with cassava. In 2012, approximately 1,086.30 metric tons of corn was produced in the province, Table 21. It may be noted that farmers prefer to plant white corn than yellow corn because of market advantage. Areas planted to corn are Isabela City (275 hectares), Lantawan (7 hectares), Ungkaya Pukan (6.5 hectares), Lamitan City (4 hectares), and TABUAN-LASA (3 hectares).
Table 20 - Rice Production, 2012 (in Metric Tons)
Table 21 - Corn Production, 2014 (in Metric Tons)
The prevalence of natural rubber (Hevea Brasilienses) as a key commercial crop in the province of Basilan has long been established. It has given life to thousands of small farmers, agrarian-reform-beneficiaries, traders, processors and other stakeholders. It plays a significant role in province’s economic growth.
The industry in the province looks forward for better opportunities. Local government units (LGUs) see a bright prospect in promoting the rubber industry as part of their agricultural development which offers a tremendous opportunity as an economic enterprise.
The economic importance of rubber cannot be underestimated, since several sectors are dependent and have benefited from this industry. In terms of environmental demands, rubber is fast becoming popularly used for reforestation due to the capacity of one tree to hold approximately 5,000 gallons of water.
Comprehensive evaluation of the province's soil attributes and climate shows that the entire province has the advantages and potential and is suitable for these perennial trees. Transforming the areas’ underutilized upland areas into rubber tree plantations offers a tremendous opportunity, as an economic enterprise.
Agrarian Reform Cooperatives
The province was once considered the major producer of good quality rubber in the region due mainly to the presence of large commercial plantations introduced by private companies such as B.F. Goodrich Co. Inc., Menzi Agricultural Corporation and Sime Darby International Tire Company. These plantations through their group of companies were major exporters of rubber in the country.
The advent of the Comprehensive Agrarian Reform Program in 1988 have placed these plantations under CARP coverage and eventually were awarded to its farmworker-beneficiaries who were organized into self-managed agrarian reform cooperatives and took over the operations and businesses of the former company-owners. Due to the magnitude of the areas and large of number of Agrarian Reform Beneficiaries (ARBs) involved, these cooperatives were also declared as Agrarian Reform Communities (ARCs) by the Department of Agrarian Reform (DAR) in order to showcase the impact of CARP implementation in the province. These cooperatives greatly contributed to the economic output of the agricultural sector in the province Table 22.
Table 22 – Rubber Area by Cooperative and Location, 2014
Since their existence over two decades ago, these cooperatives were once regarded as success stories of CARP implementation as they were raking high income due to the various support services interventions by DAR and other line agencies. Some of these cooperatives were widely recognized as among the outstanding cooperatives in the country.
However, the effect of global recession coupled with operational mismanagement among its leaders have adversely affected the operations of these cooperatives leading to downtrending patterns that resulted to huge losses and accumulation of enormous financial liabilities. Such situation characterizes the present status among these cooperatives nowadays.
In order to cushion the impact of the global financial crisis and for the sustainability of their operations, the DAR as the lead agency in implementing CARP, in coordination with the Cooperative Development Authority (CDA), other line agencies and stakeholders is currently introducing a concept that gradually transform the corporate farming system adopted from the previous owners into the individual farming system through a scheme of Growership Arrangements wherein the individual ARB shall be empowered to cultivate and take care of his farmlot with a collaborative effort of technical and marketing support of their existing cooperatives. Series of meeting and consultations were conducted to orient/discuss and exhaust the ideas to ARBs and presented some models. A Referendum was also conducted for them to vote freely if the beneficarieas are willing or not to take such responsibility.
The concept primarily aims to minimize labor cost and maximize potential of each farmlot and at the same time maintain bargaining power in marketing and trading in order for these cooperatives to be more competitive in the socio-economic mainstream.
Presently there are five (5) existing rubber processing plants in the province, three (3) of which are owned and operated by the rubber-based cooperatives and two (2) by private sector. It is estimated to produce 21 MT per day of processed rubber (PTR 5/5L, PTR 20) or around 6,552 MT per year. Of the five processors only MARBEDCO is not servicing outside rubber refer Table 23. Quality of the semi-processed rubber has been affected due to its non-standard facilities. Based on BAS records around 40,760 MMT of field rubber (cuplump) is being produced by the province.
Table 23- List of Existing Rubber Processors
Small / Individual Rubber Growers
Small rubber holders or growers, however, managed to sustain the operation of the industry but not as effective and efficient as the large rubber plantations. Hence, the Provincial Government of Basilan is spearheading the planting of rubber both on large and small scale by providing farmers with the necessary assistance. A Provincial Central Nursery was established to sustain the needed planting materials, around 3-5 million rubber trees had been propagated and distributed for the past three to four years
Indicative data (as of Dec 2013) from the DAF-ARMM Basilan Research Station, Provincial Agricultures’ Office (OPAg), DTI-ARMM Basilan Provincial Office, and from the different LGUs-Agriculture Offices shows, area devoted to rubber is 48,377.35 hectares. Of the total area, 82.42% or 39,872.52 hectares are owned by small and individual growers and the 17.58% or 8,504.83 hectares are owned-managed by rubber-based cooperatives, refer Table 24. Economic life of rubber is up to 30-35 years.
On the other hand, there are about 10,500 rubber growers and increasing in the province who are directly involved in rubber farming. Around 52.05% or 5,465 are individual growers, while 47.95% or 5,035 are agrarian-reform-beneficiaries, Table 8. An estimated of 35,000 individuals are rubber-based workers. In terms of distribution of rubber farms and growers, out of 255 barangays around 63% or 161 barangays are engaged with rubber production. Around 150 are nursery operators mostly are backyard–type while 30 owned-operate bud wood gardens. Roughly, there are 10,000 estimated tappers and 500 are budders, most are not trained and skilled.
Most farmers in the province especially small growers’ see rubber as a major source of income rather than supplementary. While, Local Government Units (LGUs), line agencies, financing institutions and other stakeholders are encouraged to support due to the promising returns of the industry.
A rubber grower federation was also organized which members composed of representatives from the different municipalities. There is a need to strengthen the rubber sectoral organizations in the province and in some municipalities.
The Basilan Rubber Industry Development Council (BRIDC) was created by the provincial government to assist the growth and promotion of the industry. There is a need to strengthen the rubber sectoral organizations in the province and in some municipalities.
Table 24 - Rubber Industry Status
Table 25 - Distribution of Rubber Areas in the Province of Basilan by City/Municipality as of Dec 2013
Coconut in the Basilan is the most extensive and widely planted crop and also the most versatile. The province has a total coconut area of 68,604.13 hectares, Table 26. Coconut production in the province was recorded at 859,527.39 metric tons. The cities of Lamitan and Isabela have 12,455.50 hectares (18.20%) and 11,866 hectares (17.30%), respectively. Followed by the municipalities; Lantawan with 10,007 hectares (14.60%); Sumisip with 8,582.42 hectares (12.50%); Maluso with 6,928.16 hectares (10.10%); Tipo-Tipo with 3,199 hectares (4.70%); Tuburan with 2,867 hectares (4.20%); Akbar with 2,668.5 hectares (3.90%); Hj. Moh. Ajul 2,380.55 hectares (3.50%); Albarka with 2,380 hectares (3.50%) and Ungkaya Pukan with 2,096 hectares (3.10%).
Coconut Scale Insects (Cocolisap)
The current insect infestation or cocolisap in the city of Isabela and the nearby areas has already affected more than ten thousand (10,000) hectares or around 120,000 coconut trees. No complete solution has been established by the Philippine Coconut Authority (PCA).
Table 26- Coconut Production, by Location, 2012
220.127.116.11 Livestock and Poultry
Basilan is a prime breeding ground of livestock and poultry but remained entirely as a backyard level enterprise. Chicken inventory reached 414,559 heads in 2012 while cattle and carabao was recorded at 25,714 and 19,486 heads, respectively. Subsequently followed by goat inventory with 28,633 heads, hogs were recorded at 39,628 heads and ducks with 13,357 refer Table 27.
Much of these are consumed locally and quantity of livestock shipped outside the province.
Table 27 - Livestock and Poultry, Basilan, 2012
18.104.22.168 Fishery Production
Basilan is surrounded by rich fishing grounds such as the Basilan Strait, Moro Gulf, Sulu Sea and the Celebes Sea. Fish caught were tunas, alumahan, matang baka, dalagang bukid, tangingue, dilis, talakitok, lapu-lapu and labahita, among others.
There are about 700 commercial fishermen, 10,000 full time and 17,000 part time municipal fishermen. Overall, about 12% of the total population is involved in fishing. In 2012, the province produced a total of 126,594.80 MT of fish and 186 MT of seaweeds, Table 28.
Maluso municipality being the fishing capital of the province contributed 15.32% or 19,394.40 MT of the total 2012 fishery production. Followed by Hj. Muhtamad with 13.90% (17,579MT), Isabela City at 13.50% (17,140.40 MT), TABUAN-LASA with 11.30% (14,266.80MT) and Lantawan at 8.80% (11,135MT).
For seaweeds and other crustaceans the following municipalities contributed significant production; TABUAN-LASA (1,750) Hj. Muhtamad (1,520MT) and Sumisip (1,100MT). No record of fish and seaweeds production for Ungkaya Pukan and Akbar municipalities.
An on-going construction of Fish Ports in Kulay Bato, Lamitan City and Buli-Buli, Sumisip Muncipaltiy, DAF-ARMM reported.
Table 28 - Fishery Production, Basilan, 2012 (in MT)
22.214.171.124 Tourist Attractions
Basilan’s natural beauty is pristine and unspoiled. No crowds and hordes of people to contend with, one can commune with nature and the land in peace and solitude to each heart’s content. From the quaint towns and countryside, to the majestry of waterfalls and the serenity of seashores, from the historical relics of the past to the living heritage of the present, it’s all there. It’s the people, the sea, and the land. The beauty of Basilan has many faces.
- Rizal Park
- Chapel of Peace – Religious @ Hill Top
- White Beach
- Sumagdang Beach
- Kumalarang Cave
- Water Fall @ Block 35
- ISAWAD Resort
- Rubber Plantations
- Datu Kalun Park
- Lamitan Museum
- Bulingan Fall
- Maloong Fall
- Calugusan Beach
- Monte Santo – Religious at Hill Top
- Dangkalan Beach
- Ethnic Arts/Craft of the Native Yakan Community
- Rubber Plantations
- Mahayahay Fall
- Gaunan Island Beach
- Taikela Island Beach
- Atong-Atong Beach
- Bato Linao-Black-Hidden Treasures
Hajji Mohammad Ajul
- Taguime Shrine
- Fort of Sultan Kudalat
- Baluk-Baluk Cave Haven for Bat
- Tagutoh Islet Cave
- Luuk Bagong Beach
- Luuk Lubukan Beach
126.96.36.199 Economic Base Industries
Basilan’s economic growth is generally anchored on agriculture and fisheries/aquacultures. Over 70% of the island province’s land area is covered with agriculture. About 70% of business is based on trading, 7% is focused on manufacturing which leaves much room for investment expansion. While Services and allied sectors account for the remaining 23%.
Table 29, Map 20 and Map 21 shows the potential industries to be developed and established in different cities and municipalities that will augment and sustain the economic growth of the province.
Table 29 - Economic Base Industries, 2014
188.8.131.52 Public Economic Enterprise (PEEs)
Based on the report of DILG-ARMM, there are on-going construction of Public Markets in the municipalities of Al-Barka, Lantawan, Maluso, Sumisip, TABUAN-LASA, Tipo-Tipo, Tuburan and Ungkaya Pukan.
184.108.40.206 Local Factors
a. Financial Services
There are seven (7) banks and financial institutions servicing the province. Five of which can be found in Isabela City these are; the LBP, DBP, Metro Bank and two PNB (formerly Allied Bank). The remaining two institutions are located in Lamitan City namely; the UCPB-Rural Bank of Lamitan and the LARBECO Savings Bank, Table 30.
Table 30 – Banks and Financial Institutions, by Classifications, 2014
b. Incentives and Privileges:
The Regional Board of Investment (RBOI-ARMM) has made it more convenient for local and foreign investors to take advantage of new opportunities. Below are the incentives provided;
- Income Tax Holiday
- Additional Deductions for Local Expenses (ADLE)
- Exemption from Contractors Tax
- Unrestricted Use of Consigned Equipment Under Re-Export Bond
- Tax Credit on Raw Materials and Supplies
- Exemption from Taxes and Duties on Imported Spare Parts
- Exemption from Wharfage Dues & Export Taxes, Duties, Imposts & Fees
- Tax and Duty Importation of Capital Equipment
- Employment of Foreign Nationals
1. Income Tax Holiday (ITH):
The Board of Investment (BOI) registered enterprises shall be exempt from the payment of income tax reckoned from the scheduled start of commercial operation as follows:
- New projects with a pioneer status for six (6) years;
- New projects with a non-pioneer status for four (4) years);
- Expansion or modernization of projects for three (3) years:;
- Projects located in Less Developed Areas (LDAs) are entitled to six (6) years of ITH regardless of status.
2. Additional Deduction for Labor Expense (ADLE):
For the first five (5) years from registration, a registered enterprise shall be allowed an additional deduction from taxable income equivalent to fifty percent (50%) of the wages of additional skilled and unskilled workers in the direct labor force. However, this incentive shall be granted only if the enterprise meets a prescribed capital of labor ratio and shall not be availed simultaneously with ITH.
3. Exemption from Contractors Tax:
Enterprise registered under the Code are exempt from the contractors tax, whether national or local with respect to their registered operations.
- The contractors tax is now equated with the Value Added Tax (VAT) and BOI registered enterprises may be exempted or zero rated.
4) Unrestricted Use of Consigned Equipment Under Re-export Bond:
Machinery, equipment and spare parts consigned to any RBOI registered firm shall not be subject to restrictions to a period of use. Any entitlements to apply with this incentive will not exceed ten (10) years from the date of registration. Spare parts may be imported separately. Non-production equipment such as power generation sets, transformers, compressors and broilers are included. Guarantees for re-exportation: 100% of the import duties & taxes waived.
5) Tax Credit on Raw Materials and Supplies:
A tax credit equivalent to the national internal revenue taxes and duties paid on raw materials, supplies and semi-manufactured products used in the manufacture, processing or production of its export products and forming part thereof will be granted to a registered enterprise if the taxes on the supplies, raw materials and semi-manufactured products domestically purchased are indicated as a separate item in the sales invoice.
6) Exemption from Taxes and Duties on Imported Spare Parts:
A registered enterprise with a bonded manufacturing warehouse shall be 100% exempted from customs duties and national internal revenue taxes on its importation of required supplies/spare parts for consigned equipment or those imported with incentive provided that:
a) They are not manufactured locally in sufficient quantity or comparable quality and at a reasonable price
b) They are reasonably needed and will be used exclusively by the registered enterprise in its registered activity.
7) Exemption from Wharfage Dues and Export Taxes, Duties, Impost and Fees:
All registered enterprise listed in IPP will be given a ten (10) year period from the date of registration to avail themselves of the exemption from wharfage dues and any export taxes, imposts and fees on its non-traditional export products.
8) Tax and Duty on the Importation of Capital Equipment:
Under the E.O. No. 528, reducing the rates of Duty on Capital Equipment, Spare Parts and Accessories imported by the BOI registered New and Expanding Enterprises.
9) Employment of Foreign Nationals:
A registered enterprise maybe allowed to employ foreign nationals in technical, supervisory or advisory positions for five (5) years from the date of registration provided that they will train Filipinos as their understudies and shall submit annual exports on such training to the Board.
c. Market Channels
Commodities and commuters that are coming-in and going-out of the province are usually taking the major ports of Isabela City and Lamitan City. It is estimated around 55% of the passengers and agricultural products are catered by Isabela City port, while the Lamitan City port serves 40% and the Maluso wharf takes the 5% share.
Zamboanga City port is the market route of the products before going to other destinations. It has the accessibility and facilities that can accommodate the province’s goods and commodities. On the other hand, Maluso Municipality wharf is the potential route for BIMP – EAGA.
Figure 3 – Market Route of Basilan Province
3.4 TRANSPORTATION, ACCESS AND CIRCULATION
Transportation is a key element that affects the interactions among population, economic and other social activities, and other resources of the Province. In many cases, strategies involving transportation projects provide important opportunities in enabling and catalyzing development.
3.4.1 External Linkages
220.127.116.11 Land Transportation
Since Basilan is an island province, it has no access road or bridge connecting to the neighboring provinces and region. However, putting up a bridge connecting Zamboanga City is still to be considered in the future long-term plan.
18.104.22.168 Air Transportation
In terms of air transportation, the province of Basilan is devoid of airport but has a 600-meter privately-owned airstrip. This can be found in Menzi Plantation in Isabela City. Constructing a commercial airport in the province is not likely to be feasible because of its proximity to Zamboanga City. However, the improvement of the existing airstrip must be taken into consideration for emergency purposes. Airstrip can be used as landing area for private planes of VIPs and investors, Map 22.
Airstrip must be identified to be used for relief and emergency during calamity, sea transportation is not feasible as had been experienced during the Zamboanga Siege last September 9, 2013.
22.214.171.124 Sea Transportation
Sea Transportation is the major external transportation of the Province. At the moment, there are two (2) major port areas located in cities of Isabela, and Lamitan and one local port in maluso. The port in Isabela City has been the major port with four (4) ferry boats and two (2) fast-crafts traveling every day to Zamboanga City, while in Lamitan city port there are two regular boats plying to Zamboanga City every day, Table 31.
Most of the barangays in the province are located in the coastal and islands and islets. Motorized banca (pumpboat) is their main means of transporting goods from and to the market centers. There is a need to construct and rehabilitate rock causeway and timber pier to improve the services and economic growth in the islands and coastal barangays.
However, as per record, the ship-calls and the volume of cargoes from the ports of Isabela and Lamitan Cities increased by 5% and 8% respectively, from year 2011 to 2012. One factor is the recent established of the RORO Port and Terminal in Lamitan City. It is evident by the increased of Ship-calls and volume of cargoes for the port of Lamitan.
Since the ports of Isabela and Lamitan are considered as the major ports of Basilan, there is a need to put-up warehouses to accommodate the increasing volume of cargoes coming in and out of the ports.
Table 31 - Inventory of Seaport Transportations and Facilities
MAP 22- TRANSPORTATION FACILITIES MAP
3.4.2 Internal Circulation
126.96.36.199 Land Transportation
The inadequacy of transportation support facilities has substantially affected the economic development of the Province. It has limited the delivery of farm inputs and restricted the movement of service providers in the rural areas
The Basilan National Road Network has a total length of 155.712 kilometers, about 82.940 kms or 53.27% are paved and 72.772 kms or 46.73% are still unpaved. However, around 57.0934 kms are on-going or programmed for pavement. While 132.9656 kms or 85.39% of the Basilan National Road is the Basilan Circumferential Road which is subdivided into four (4) major sections refer Table 32 and Map 23 - Basilan Road Classification Map, namely:
1) Isabela-Maluso Section
The length of this road section is 29.658 km. And it is 100% fully paved. While 2.180 or 7.35% asphalt overlay.
2) Isabela-Lamitan Section
This road section is 29.60 km. it is 100% fully paved. While 3.301 or 11.15% asphalt overlay.
3) Lamitan-Tipo-Tipo-Tumahubong Section
This road section has a total length of 39.342 km with only 15.01856 km or 38.17% are paved while 24.32 km or 61.83% remains unpaved, wherein part of it are already on-going or programmed.
4) Maluso-Sumisip-Tumahubong Section
This road has a total length of 34.3656 km, only 7.6476 km or 22.25% are paved and 26.72 km. remains unpaved. Roughly 23.67 km are already on-going and progammed.
The deterioration of the southern portion of the circumferential road can be attributed to lack of funds because these sections were newly converted to National Roads thru Department Order No. 53 series of 1999. The Campo-Uno-Tuburan Road was converted to National Roads thru Department Order No. 160 Series of 2002.
Table 32 - Total Existing Roads, by Location, Length and Classification, 2012
The Provincial Circumferential Road Network is the main access road to all the municipalities and cities in the province.
The Southern Sections of the Basilan Circumferential Road (Maluso, Sumisip, Ungkaya Pukan and Tipo-Tipo areas) has already been started funded by Saudi Funds. To minimize the effect of land slide in susceptible land slide area it is recommended to use geo-textile technology.
The roads under the Jurisdiction of the Provincial Government have a total length of 231.55 km, about 7.53 km or 3.25% paved and 224.02 km or 96.75% remains unpaved, some sections are already dilapidated which are impassable during rainy days, Table 33.
To ensure faster delivery of basic services, and strengthen the linkages between the production centers and market outlets, the immediate concreting of 67.291 km. national road and rehabilitation and upgrading of 224.02 km. local road may be given consideration between now and 2015.
Table 33 - Provincial Roads, 2014
b) Road Density
The urban road density of two cities and municipalities of Basilan except Tuburan are below the standard as mandated by the Housing and Land Use Regulatory Board (HLURB) which is 2.4 kilometer/1000 urban population. The urban road density of Isabela City is 0.54 km/1000 urban population, Lamitan City is 0.73 km/1000 urban population, Table 34. Theoretically, the City of Isabela needs to construct an additional urban road of 97.95 km, Lamitan City needs 46.68 km, while Maluso needs only about 35.24 kms of urban road.
The province including the City of Isabela has an urban road density of 0.78 km/1000 urban population and it needs a total urban road of 220.13 km While if we exclude Isabela City, the urban road density is 1.12 km/1000 urban population and it needs a total urban road of 90.10 km.
The Municipality of Hj. Muhtamad and Hj. Mohammad Ajul have lesser rural road density of .048 km/km2 and .05 km/km2 respectively as compared to the specific standard of 1.5 km/km2.
Isabela City and Lamitan City needs to construct additional rural roads of 135.04 km. and 272.71 km. respectively. The province including Isabela City has a rural road density of 0.39 km/km2 and it needs to construct rural road of 3,711.08 km. While, if Isabela City is excluded rural road density of the province is 0.37 km/km2 and it needs to construct 3,576.04 km of rural road.
More additional urban and rural roads may be necessary depending on the locations and the area of settlement. However, upgrading and improving the existing roads must be given priority.
c) Bus Terminals
Basilan has no inter-provincial bus terminals since it is an isolated island province. The City of Isabela constructed two (2) public utility vehicles terminals, one from east bound and the other for the west bound. The city of Lamitan has constructed public utility terminal thru loan, other municipalities just designated an area to be used as terminals.
Table 34 - Road Density, by Location, 2013
Majority of the existing bridges are reinforced concrete deck girder (RCDG) with allowable load capacity of 15 metric ton and already needs repair and maintenance. Overflows with an allowable load capacity of 5-10 metric ton must be upgraded to minimize accident for heavy equipment and public transportation refer Table 35 and Map 23.
Table 35 - Existing Bridges, by Location, 2013
MAP 23- ROAD CLASSIFICATION MAP
3.5 SOCIAL SERVICES
Basilan has one (1) General Hospital located in Isabela City. It has a 100-bed capacity and is served by 6 attending physicians, Table 36. Basilan General Hospital generally caters patients from Isabela City, Lantawan, Maluso and Hadji Muhtamad.
Likewise, the province has also one (1) functional Provincial Hospital with 25 bed capacity located in Lamitan City. This health facility serves patients from the municipalities of Tuburan, Akbar, Hj. Mohammad Ajul, Tipo-Tipo, Al-Barka and Ungkaya Pukan. The other district hospital is in Sumisip Municipality, which also serves patients from TABUAN-LASA but was abandoned due to non-availability of maintenance funds.
There are four (4) private hospitals with a total bed capacity of 131- three in Isabela City and one in Lamitan City. More complex medical cases that are beyond the capacity of these hospitals are referred to and/or availed of either in the cities of Isabela and Zamboanga by almost all of the municipalities. With this condition, there is a need to operationalize the abandoned district hospital in Sumisip Municipality and to establish another district hospital in Maluso Municipality to serve the western part of Basilan, Map 24.
Table 36 – List of Existing Public and Private Hospitals, 2013
188.8.131.52 Health Stations
The local government units of Basilan had established 12 main Rural Health Units (RHU) that are manned by nurses and midwives. There are 106 Barangay Health Stations (BHS) that are managed by midwives in nearby barangays without RHU.
Based on the 2012 National Statistics Office survey, Basilan ranked 74 among all provinces in the country that has the lowest percentage of families with access to health services refer Table 37 and Map 24.
Table 37 – Existing Barangay Health Facilities, by Location, 2013
184.108.40.206 Health Personnel
As shown in Table 38, not all municipalities have sufficient health personnel. The municipal government has difficulties in hiring medical doctors primarily because they cannot afford to offer competitive salary levels. Most doctors prefer to work in the urban areas or engaged in private practice because compensation is more attractive than locally employed.
All municipalities except TABUAN-LASA and Maluso does not have public medical doctors. This means that each of these municipalities needs to hire one medical Doctor considering the doctor-population standard ratio of 1:20,000. While Isabela City has the required number of medical doctors, Lamitan City needs to hire two additional doctors.
Table 38 shows that the province has a deficit of 10 medical doctors, On the other hand, the province, except the newly created municipalities that needs two nurses and 3 midwives, has adequate nurses and midwives. However, these health personnel are mostly stationed in the urban areas. Hence, the situation clearly indicates that people, especially those in the remote areas, are deprived of their rights to access basic health services.
MAP 24- HEALTH FACILITES MAP
Table 38 – Inventory of Health Personnel, by Location, 2012
a) Under Five Morbidity
The ten leading causes of sickness in the province are skin disease and diarrhea, which accounts for 33.43% of the total number of people who got sick in 2012. As shown in Table 39, cases of skin disease and diarrhea are higher among males and females, respectively.
In 2006, record showed that bronchitis, influenza and diarrhea cases were the three leading causes of illness amomg under five.
Compared to 2012 data, only diarrhea has consistently recorded as one of the major causes of morbidity due to poor hygiene and water borne diseases.
It is also alarming to note that urinitary tract infection and malnutrition which is 16.12% of the total, was one of the leading cause of mortality in the entire province.
Table 39 – Under Five Ten Leading Causes of Morbidity, by Sex and Rate per 100,000 Population, 2012
b) Adult Morbidity
Skin Disease and Hypertension are the top two leading causes of sickness for adult in the province. It recorded a total illness of 3,408 or around 33.73% of the total deaths of 10,103 refer Table 40. The Provincial Health Office (PHO) recorded higher figure for males than females.
Followed by Acute Respiratory Infection (1,219), Cough/Cold (1,126) and Diarrhea (1,030). The primary reason of these leading cause of morbidity is due to low access of households’ population to health services.
Table 40 –Ten Leading Causes of Morbidity for Adult, by Sex and Rate per 100,000 Population, 2012
a) Infant Mortality
For infant mortality, a total of 24 deaths occurred in 2012 refer Table 41. Causes for these demised are unknown Etiology, bronco pneumonia and diarrhea, covering a total of 18 infants or around 75% of the entire 24 deaths.
Table 41 –Infant Mortality, by Sex and Rate per 100,000 Population, 2012
b) Children Under Five Mortality
As shown in Table 42, children under five mortality had a total deaths of 24. Reasons for these losses are unknown Etiology, bronco pneumonia and kidney failure, covering a total of 13 children under five or around 58% of the entire 24 deaths.
Table 42 – Children Under Five Mortality, by Sex and Rate per 100,000 Population, 2012
c) Adult Mortality
Cardio Vascular Arrest, Cardio Vascular Disease and PTB were the top three leading causes of mortality for adult in the province. It recorded a total death of 88 or around 49% of the total deaths of 178 refer Table 43. Followed by Cardio Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (11 deaths), bronco/pneumonia (9) and cancer (8) and others. The Provincial Health Office (PHO) recorded higher figure for males than females.
Table 43 – Adult Ten Leading Causes of Mortality, by Sex and Rate per 100,000 Population, 2012
220.127.116.11 Low Birth Weight
The total live births recorded by the Provincial Health Office (PHO) were 4,918 excluding the city of Isabela. Only five percent (5%) of this total or 262 births have weight less than 2,500 grams or underweight. The percentage of low birth weights in the municipalities of TABUAN-LASA (12.44%), Moh Ajul (10.79%), Tipo-Tipo (10.62%), Maluso (8.31) and Tuburan (7.04%), were much higher than the provincial average, Table 44.
The tremendous decreased of underweight compared to 2006 data of 1,075 infants (76% decrease) is due to the massive info drive conducted by the provincial health office in collaboration with DOH, CSOs and other support institutions.
Table 44 – Weight at Birth, by Location, 2012
18.104.22.168 Elementary and Secondary Education
The School Division Office of Basilan Province has nineteen (19) districts, including the four (4) districts in Isabela City and five (5) districts in Lamitan City. It covers 216 pre-schools, 237 elementary schools and 33 secondary schools, Table 45 and Map 25.
Only the municipalities of Al-Barka, Ungkaya Pukan, Akbar and Hj. Moh. Ajul has no district offices. However, these localities are all accessible to the nearest school district offices.
22.214.171.124 Cohort Survival Rate (CSR)
The average cohort survival rate for Elementary level in the province from 2009 to 2014 is 40.63 % refer Table 45. This means that more than one-half of pupils who had enrolled at the beginning grade failed to reach Grade VI.
In SY 2009-2010, only 35.94 percent of elementary students in the province were able to reach Grade VI. The percentage slightly decreased to 33.18 percent in SY 2010-2011, further dropped to 26.90 percent in SY 2011-2012 before tremendously increased to 68.70 percent in SY 2012-2013 then dropped again to 38.44 percent in SY 2013-2014.
126.96.36.199 Completion Rate
The average completion rate for elementary level from 2009 to 2014 is 39.15 percent as shown in Table 45. At the end of elementary cycle, it shows that 39 pupils survive in every 100 students who are all first year entrants regardless of age.
For SY 2009-2010, DepEd-ARMM Basilan has recorded 35.05 percent of elementary students were able to graduate. It slightly decreased to 31.63 percent in SY 2010-2011, then dropped to 22.29 percent in SY 2011-2012, surprisingly it increased to 68.70 percent in SY 2012-2013 then plummeted again to 38.07 percent in SY 2013-2014 as shown in Figure 4.
A number of factors were considered to this result, one is the peace and order situation, shortages of teachers and lack of classrooms, desk and textbooks. Considering also the distances of these schools from many settlements and the condition of the roads/trails that the pupils and students have to traverse, especially during rainy season.
Table 45 – Education Situation, by Location, 2014
188.8.131.52 Classrooms Inventory
As per data from DepEd-ARMM Basilan Division Office, enrollment for SY 2012-2013 reached 37,161 students, lower by 17% compared to SY 2005-2006 of 44,949 enrollees in the elementary level.
Given a standard class size of 40 pupils per classroom, the province still needs 134 additional classrooms for elementary level. Around 558 classrooms need to be repaired, Table 46.
MAP 25 - EDUCATION FACILITIES MAP
184.108.40.206 Teachers Inventory
Basilan Schools division recorded a total of 2,319 elementary school teachers. Obviously, Isabela City (1,091) has the biggest number of teachers followed by Lamitan City (565).
Of the eleven (11) municipalities, eight (8) of which still need additional elementary teachers, except for Lantawan, TABUAN-LASA and Ungkaya Pukan considering they had met more than the requirements. The most in need elementary schools are locate in the municipalities of Sumisip (38), Hj. Muhtamad (25), Tipo-Tipo (22), Al-Barka (25), Akbar (5) and Hj. Moh. Ajul (20), Table 47.
One major reason for the shortage of teachers in the rural areas was the unstable peace and order situation in the province that threatens the security of teachers in areas considered to be likely affected by armed-conflict. Affected teachers were pulled out and reassigned to areas such as the cities of Isabela and Lamitan. Some were assigned to auxiliary services and other special assignment.
Table 47 – Teachers Need in Elementary, by Location, 2012
220.127.116.11 Elementary Textbooks
Based on the data from DepEd-ARMM Basilan Division Office, no shortage of major books for subjects such as Mathematics, Science and English, the pupil-textbook ratio is one pupil per book, Table 66.
However, for Elementary level in Lamitan City, the pupil-textbook ratio for the major subjects such as Mathematics and Science showed two (2) pupils per textbook and for English one pupil per textbook refer Table 48. The shortage of textbooks in the elementary level largely affects both the quality of teaching and learning capabilities of the teachers and students, respectively.
Table 48 – Shortage of Elementary Textbooks, SY 2012-2013
18.104.22.168 Secondary Textbooks
For secondary level refer Table 49, the entire province of Basilan including Lamitan City generally has a student–textbook ratio of one student per textbook in all major subjects such as Mathematics, Science and English.
Table 49 – Shortage of Secondary Textbooks, SY 2012-2013
22.214.171.124 Classroom Desks and Chairs (Elementary and High School)
Aside from the lack of textbooks and classrooms, Basilan Province also had severe shortage of desks and chairs as shown in Table 50. A total of 19,781 desks/chairs were needed in all levels during the same school year.
Likewise, Lamitan City suffers shortage of desks/chairs for Elementary (4,966) and secondary (660) or around two (2) students per usable seat.
All these shortages contributed to low academic performances in the entire province.
Table 50 – Shortage of Desks and Chairs, SY 2012-2013
The province also has tertiary schools (State, Colleges and Vocationals) that provide college education to its constituents. Five (5) institutions are located in Isabela City namely; Claret College of Isabela, Basilan State College, Juan S. Alano School of Midwifery, COMTECH, Furigay College, Inc.. On the side, Lamitan City has four (4) colleges namely; Basilan State College (Extension School), Furigay College, Inc (Main), Mariam Collge and Mindanao Autonomous College Foundation (MACF) refer Table 51 and Map 25.
Table 51 – Higher Education Institutions, 2012
126.96.36.199 Alternative Learning System
Basilan Schools Division is experiencing a shortage in mobile teachers with the number of non-literates in the upland and island barangay communities. This contributes to the low literacy rate of the province which is estimated at 72.23%.
The 2008 ALS Literacy Mapping showed that there are 19,947 non-literates, number of dropouts for elementary is 6,320 and number of dropouts for secondary reached 8,376.
The province needed to hire 14 mobile teachers to cater the drop-outs.
188.8.131.52 Day Care Center
Day Care Services are the responsibility of the Local Government Units. About 71.00% or 182 of the 255 barangays in the province (including Isabela City) have Day Care Centers (DCC) refer Table 52 and Map 25.
Of the total DCCs, Ungkaya Pukan Municipality has an impressived performance of 142% or seventeen (17) DCCs out of twelve (12) barangays. Followed by Tipo-Tipo with 118% or thirteen (13) DCCs out of the eleven (11) barangays and Hj. Muhtamad with 9 DCCs (90%) out of 10 barangays. On the other hand, the municipalities of Lantawan (40%) and Hj. Mohammad Ajul (46%) has the lesser presence of DCCs.
Isabela City has 98% or 44 DCCs out of 45 barangays and Lamitan City with 60% or 27 DCCs out of 45 barangays not impressive enough to cater the whole communities.
The shortage of DCCs in the province deprived preschoolers of the opportunity to develop their full potential considering that mental and motor skills development substantially occurs between the age of 3 and 5. Day care services also increase school readiness of 3-5 years old children. Hence, the need to establish DCCs in areas where these are badly needed.
Table 52 – Day Care Centers, by Location, 2012
Among the LGUs of the province, only Lamitan City had acquired a seven-hectare lot that could accommodate about 500 units for low cost housing. Beneficiaries of this local initiative also include the employees of the city government. The Local Housing Board has been pursuing this initiative by coordinating with the concerned agencies of government. Low cost housing were constructed for Badjaos who were displaced which resettlement site is located in Barangay Kulaybato and Bato, Lamitan City.
The Christian Community Foundation (CCF) a church-based non-governmental organization had also extended low-cost-housing units to some dwellers.
Per record from DSWD-ARMM, the Habitat for Humanity Philippines Foundation and the 55th Enginering Battalion had constructed 83 Modified Core Shelters in the province and 18- units are still on-going.
3.5.4 Utility/Infrastructure Services
The Island province of Basilan is endowed with abundant sources of surface and underground water. Despite this, only the cities of Isabela and Lamitan and the municipality of Maluso have Level III water supply systems through their respective local water districts, Map 26.
Around 66.64% of the total households (HHs) have access to safe drinking water. Of this, 22.40% have households connections (Level III) while 26.11% gets water from communal faucets (Level II) and 18.14% (Level 1). The rest of the households fetch water from doubtful sources, which are mostly open and shallow wells refer Table 70. This situation partly explains why diarrhea is one the leading causes of morbidity in the province and partly due to the presence of dwellers in highlands and islets where water sources are scarce and water system expensive to develop.
On the other hand, DILG-ARMM reporteed an on-going potable-water-supply projects undertaken in the municipalities of Tuburan, Lantawan, Sumisip, Tipo-Tipo and Ungkaya Pukan.
Table 53– Number of Households with Access to Safe Drinking Water, by Location, 2012
Households’ access to sanitary toilet in the province has been improving from 34.72% in 2006 to 40.47% in 2012 refer Table 54. All eleven (11) municipalities with access to sanitation posted below 36%. Majority of households without sanitary toilets are located in the remote barangays and along the coastal areas.
Except for Isabela and Lamitan Cities whose access were 68% and 61.56%, respectively. Households’ access to sanitary toilet in province is a major concern that requires special attention from the local officials.
Table 54 – Number of Households with Sanitary Toilets, by Location, 2012
184.108.40.206 Solid Waste Management
The bad state of sanitary facilities in the entire province is one of the factors that are affecting the health status of its people. This situation is aggravated by the poor deliver of and access to health services.
There are only three sanitary landfill sites in the province which is located at the cities of Isabela and Lamitan and in Maluso Municipality. The former landfill site in Isabela City failed in terms of social acceptability and other technical requirements for a sanitary landfill. The site is now under the protected area zone. As a consequence of this constraint, the City Government of Isabela has designated a 2.5 ha lot as the new sanitary landfill site in barangay Baluno. The site is situated about 10 km from the city proper, Table 55 and Map 27.
The rest of the municipalities do not have solid waste disposal sites. These municipalities should take serious effort to include and give priority to the establishment of this facility in their respective plans.
Public sewerage system is not available in all municipalities. Individual septic tanks are the most common facility for disposing human waste. Runoff water is being conveyed into the sea through a concrete culvert or canals.
On the other hand, the DOST-ARMM turned-over a Bio-Reactor Facility to the Provincial Government. This will help covert the garbage into a useful organic fertilizer.
Table 55 – Existing Solid Waste Disposal, 2012
The electric power of the province is supplied by the National Power Corporation (NPC) and distributed by the Basilan Electric Cooperative (BASELCO) through a power plants and land-based diesel plant with a dependable capacity of 7.48 megawatts and from the two (2) mini-hydros with dependable power capacity of 0.95 megawatts. The total power being distributed to the whole province is only 8.63 megawatts refer Table 56 and Map 28. This power capacity is not enough to supply the province’s requirement. Thus, blackouts and sectional brown-outs occur very frequently in the province.
For a time, BASELCO was less-functional but was rehabilitated to provide better power services to the province and also to ensure power stability especially in Isabela and Lamitan Cities where commerce, trade and industry are present. By 2016, about 20 megawatts of dependable power capacity is needed to supply the increasing demands for energy.
Table 56 – Sources of Power Supply, 2012
a) Barangay Energized
The province has an energization rate of 88.63% for barangay and 43.01% for households, meaning only 4 out of 10 households are enjoying light. Households who are located in the hinterlands and island barangays in Lantawan, Akbar, Albarka, Ungkaya Pukan, Tuburan, Hj. Moh. Ajul, Sumisip and Tipo-Tipo including the island municipalities of TABUAN-LASA and Hj. Muhtamad are lagging behind in terms of this amenity, Table 57.
Table 57 – Number of Barangays Energized, 2012
b) Consumption and Collection
In 2012, the total power consumtion of the entire province pegged at 24,574,509.17 kilowatt (KW) at Php 10.913 kwph or around PhP268,186,694.01 total generated sales refer Table 58.
Based on BASELCO’s record, the actual 2012 collection was only PhP223,988,971.00 or around 83.52% collection rate. Roughly Php44,197,723.00 was not collected due to difficulty of the situation. Thus, the cooperative has an issue/problem in resolving their outstanding obligation with NAPOCOR.
Table 58 – Power Consumption and Percentage of Collection, by City / Municipality As of December 31, 2012
c) Demand Situation
The demand of power is unavoidable refer Table 59, since economic activites in the province is increasing, social services and infrastructure are coming in plus the population growth in rural and urban areas. The province needs 50,220,241 KiloWatt to meet the demand.
Table 59 - Projected Power Consumption for 2023
d) Power Loss
The power generated in 2013 reached at 34,135,016.80 KW with a consumption of 24,448,043.84 KW or about 71.62%. Estimated power loss was 968,6972.96 KW., Cause of power losses were due to pilferage and tremendous illegal tapping covering the entire province, Table 60. Only Lantawan municipality has the lowest power loss of 12%, all the rest including the two cities hit the 28% above losses.
Table 60 - Power Losses, By City/Municipality, as of December 31, 2013
220.127.116.11 Drainage/Flood Control/Shore Protection
The cities and municipalities of the province lack comprehensive flood control and drainage system. Even on a short heavy rain fall, the urban centers of Isabela City, Lamitan City and municipality of Maluso, experience flooding. The existing drainage systems are of inferior design and cannot convey huge volume of run-off water. In some areas, drainage system is not even present.
Flood control and drainage system projects compete with other infrastructure development projects for the scarce resources. Flood mitigating measures are less priority in terms of funding support.
Mobile phone is the most widely used form of communication in the province. Globe and Smart cellsites are existing in the two cities of Isabela and Lamitan, where Internet Cafés are also available. The municipalities of Maluso, Sumisip, Tipo-Tipo, Lantawan and Tuburan are likewise served by these cellsites refer Table 61 and Map 29.
Because of the proliferation, affordability and versatility of mobile phones, the landline telephone system in the province is becoming of less utility especially at the household level. The Provincial Telephone System has 1,400 lines but only half of these (700) lines are operational. The landline telephone system needs to improve its services to be more competitive with the mobile phone technology.
Table 61 - Communication Facilities, by Location, 2013
18.104.22.168 Other Support Services
This section focuses on the higher-level recreation and leisure facilities, which includes major sports or cultural centers, major parks, major tourism facilities, security and provincial government centers. The analysis is focus on the adequacy of each facility in reference to the provision standards applicable to the province refer Table 62 and Map 30.
a) Major Parks and/or Cultural Centers
The province lacks the necessary sport facilities which can help develop sports competitiveness among its constituents. There is only one (1) mini-gymnasium and an old grandstand in the City of Isabela. Establishment of provincial sports complex with a total land area of 10 ha might be feasible for the year 2017.
There are only two (2) parks existing in the Province of Basilan. One is Rizal Park located at the heart of Isabela City. This park serves as a playground and leisure place of people especially children as well as a venue of programs for special occasions. The other one is Datu Kalun Park which is located in Lamitan City. Considering the provision standard, each municipality must provide an area of about 3.0 ha to be utilized as open space or parks.
Basilan has abundant potential tourist spots that could be developed. Natural white beaches, waterfalls as well as old caves can be found in the province. Unfortunately, there are no investors interested to develop such potentials. This might be attributed to unstable peace and order.
Likewise, there are three existing hotels that could be found at the heart of Isabela City and one guest house cottages at Farmland Resort also in this city.
Table 62 – Infrastructure Provision for Recreational and Lesisure, 2012
MAP 39 – RECREATIONAL AND LEISURE MAP
b) Security & Allied Services
Given the volatile peace situation in Basilan, the Provincial Local Government Unit thru the Provincial Peace and Order Council (PPOC) formulated the Integrated Area/Community Public Safety Plan. The Plan was a product of participatory and consultative processes involving agencies of government and the private sector. The formulation process was participated in by the members of various committees that have been set up to assist the LGUs in maintaining internal peace and order.
a) PNP / Military
The Philippine National Police (PNP) Provincial Command is based in Menzi, Isabela City. Added to this, are the police stations in different cities and municipalities, and the PNP Mobile Forces.
The PNP force is complemented by seven battalions of the Armed Forces of the Philippines (AFP) composed of Philippine Army, Engineering Brigade, and Battalion Landing Team of the Philippine Marines. They are assisted by Civilian Auxiliary Force Geographical Unit (CAFGU) volunteer forces whose primary task is to protect the people from threats of insurgency.
b) Fire Station
The Provincial Fire Station and Isabela Fire Station, which have three functional firetrucks, are housed in one building in Isabela City. Two more fire stations are located in Lamitan City and Maluso. Upgrading of these fire stations, however, is necessary to support the city/town requirements.
On the other hand, DILG-ARMM reported that three (3) Fire Stations with fire trucks were constructed in the municipalities of Lantawan, Sumisip and Tuburan. Eventually, Fire Stations will be established in other municipalities that are beyond the service area of existing fire fighting facilities.
In support, two (2) private fire stations in Isabela City are also extending tremendous assistance namely the Chinese Chamber Fire Station and the UCCP Fire Station complete with emergency medical kits. Likewise, the Kalamunggay Fire Station in Lamitan City which serves also as Rescue Team during disasters.
c) Provincial Jail Station
The existing Provincial Jail Station, which is the only one in the province, is located in Sumagdang, Isabela City. This institution is being managed and administered by the Provincial Government. Budget for the maintenance and rehabilitation of the structure is regularly allocated. As per information from the Provincial Jail Warden, population is double, data is confidential cause of security reasons.
Construction of City and Municipal Jail Stations are therefore recommended to decongest the Provincial Jail Station.
d.) Women’s and Children’s Protection Desks
Women's and Children's Protection Desk were established in 7 out of the 11 LGUs in the province. These protection desks cater to cases of domestic violence, especially those committed against women and children. It also includes information and education campaign on the rights of women and children as well as advocacy on other related laws.
c. Provincial Government Center
The Provincial Government Ofices was formerly housed at the Old Spanish Port right at the heart of Isabela City overlooking Zamboanga City. The building was gutted down by fire in 1990. A three-storey Provincial Capitol Building was constructed at the same site in 1997 and occupied by the provincial government in 2002, Map
MAP 40 - GOVERNMENT CENTER MAP
3.6 CLIMATE PROFILE
The province is once upon a time blessed to be outside of the typhoon belt area and not susceptible to natural disasters. However, records from the Provincial Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Office (PDRRMO), heavy rains and strong winds brought flooding to some areas in the province, particularly the low-lying areas in the cities of Isabela and Lamitan and the Municipalities of Sumisip, Lantawan and Maluso during the onset of the rainy season. These areas are also identified as highly restricted agricultural land due to rice production and protected by National Integrated Protected Areas (NIPAS) Law.
Portions of the province showing escarpments or slopes, those areas along the steep slopes and are sparely vegetated are more susceptible to landslides especially if subjected to prolong heavy downpours. Flooding is also a common experience within the urban areas of Isabela and Lamitan Cities as its drainage system is incapable of conveying large run-off water. While siltation can be noticed in the downstream end of some major rives which signals the effect of flooding and erosion in the higher grounds.
3.6.1 Climate Type
Based on the Modified Corona Classification of Climate (MCCC, 1951-2003), there are four types (Type I, II, III, and IV) of climate based on the dry and wet seasons as induced by minimum or maximum rain periods. The climate in Basilan Province falls under Type IV characterized by a more or less even distribution of rainfall throughout the year, Map 32 - Tropical Cyclones Track.
22.214.171.124 Historical Temperature Record
In the absence of historical data for the province of Basilan, result for Zamboanga City or Zamboanga Sibugay (which is geographically closest to the province) is likely the same. It indicates that March-April-May (MAM) is hot and dry, with temperature averaging 27.90 °C (82.22 °F). While December-January-February (DJF) is cool with an average temperature of 23 °C (73.4°F) and average humidity year-round is 75%, based on PAG-ASA figures.
126.96.36.199 Historical Rainfall Record
The climate is similar to other areas in the Zamboanga Peninsula were the annual average rainfall is 1,100 millimeters (43 inches) and the mean annual temperature is 26.6 °C (79.9 °F). The source of the rainfall is the southwest monsoon (Habagat) and the island's location in the Inter Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ). The climate is classified as a tropical wet and dry climate or Aw using the Köppen climate classification system.
3.6.2 Types of Hazards Experienced by the Province
The data on type of hazards that had affected the province are all based on limited information on past records, interviews, observations and experiences, shown in Table 63-Types of Hazards Experienced by the Province. Generally, all areas in the island province were encroached by different hazards or calamities.
Table 63 - Types of Hazards Experienced by the Province
3.6.3 Hazard/Disaster Impacts on Areas and Population
Presented in Table 64, is a compilation of facts and figures of historical data accounted for the affected communities, families and persons injures and casualties during the disaster
188.8.131.52 Flash Flood
Flash floods had been frequently occurring in the province particularly in Isabela and Lamitan Cities and the Municipality of Maluso. While Lantawan, Sumisip, Akbar, Tipo-Tipo and Moh. Ajul municipalities had also experienced occasional flash floods brought by heavy rains in 2008, 2009, 2011, early January of 2012 and last October 8, 2013, refer Table 64 - Hazard/ Disaster Impacts on Areas and Population.
The most devastating flashflood occurred in the province of Basilan was last October 8, 2013. In Lamitan City, five (5) persons died and one (1) remained missing. The floods caused by days of heavy rains and have dislocated 1,590 families in nine (9) barangays or a total of 7,235 persons, sourced CWSDO- LGU.
On the same date, Isabela City was also tremendously hit by rampaging floods and swept away a pontoon bridge connecting the center of Barangay Baluno to Tabuk. Records from the Provincial Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Office (PDRRMO and FPG/RVC/PIA9-ZBST) revealed that there were ten (10) barangays in Isabela City directly affected by the floods. Wherein, Aguada River broke its banks inundating riverside communities and affecting and dislocating around 432 families or 1,637 individuals. In downtown Isabela, the City Hall building and the Basilan General Hospital were likewise inundated in flood waters.
On the other side, Maluso Municipality recorded a total of 447 families or around 2,125 individuals were affected covering ten (10) barangays and no casualties. While other affected municipalities/barangays as mentioned in Table 64, no facts or figures can be retrieved. Wherein, Lantawan Municipality has four (4) affected barangays, Tipo-Tipo with two (2) barangays and Sumisip has four (4) barangays.
184.108.40.206 Rain Induced Landslides (RIL)
Heavy rains causes the soil erosion especially upland areas were rampant of illegal loggers are present. Landslides had affected almost all municipalities and the two cities, refer Table 64.
There are no available official records or information for the incidents.
220.127.116.11 Storms Surge
Records from the Provincial/Municipal Social Welfare and Development Offices show that the Municipalities of TABUAN-LASA, Hj Muhtamad, Maluso, Ungkaya Pukan, Sumisip, Lantawan, Tipo-Tipo and Moh. Ajul were hit by storm surges in the early part of 2008, 2009, and 2013.
Only Maluso, Lantawan and Moh. Ajul municipalities recorded a total of 550 persons or 136 families affected covering three (3) coastal barangays, as shown in Table 64. No data for other areas.
18.104.22.168 Droughts/El Niño
The El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) in 1982-83, 1986-87, 1992-93, and 1997-98 had affected the province of Basilan, specially its impact to agricultural products which incurred high economic losses. Livestock were also affected especially in the island municipalities.
22.214.171.124 Sea Level Rise (SLR)
One of the effects of climate change and global warming is the sea level rise (SLR). The slowly rising of sea level has already been felt and observed in the southwest part of the province particularly in the coastal areas of Hj. Muhtamad, Maluso and Lantawan Municipalities.
Per report of World Bank (WB, 2013- published in the Sun Star Cagayan de Oro newspaper on July 19, 2013), sea-level rise within this century will affect a larger percentage of the Philippine coastline compared with that of other developing countries in the region. Sea levels in the region are expected to rise by about 125 centimeters exceeding the global average by 10–15 percent. The Philippines has been ranked the third most vulnerable country in the world to weather-related extreme events like earthquakes and sea level rise.
126.96.36.199 Earthquake/Ground Shaking and Tsunami
Based on Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS) historical data shows that the province of Basilan has an earthquake and ground shaking experienced on September 21, 1897, as a result of the eruption of Mount Bud Dajo in Sulu Province. It also produced a tsunami of about six (6) meter high affecting the western portion of the province.
The last major earthquake experienced by the province occurred on August 17, 1976 with magnitude of 7.9 on the Richter scale. This was also followed by a six (6) meter high tsunami that devastated the eastern barangays of the province mostly along coastal communities.
The effect of tsunamis recorded a total of 20 families or about 100 persons were affected in the municipality of Al-Barka covering two (2) costal barangays, refer Table 64. While the coastal barangays of Lantawan, Maluso, TABUAN LASA and Hj, Muhtamad Municipalities were affected and no records on casualties and damages can be obtained.
Table 64 - Hazard/Disaster Impacts on Areas and Population
Based on PAGASA records on Tropical Cyclone (1948-2009) Basilan had not experienced any direct typhoon except of some strong winds and heavy rains.
However, the effect of typhoon passing frequently in Zambonga Peninsula caused the distribution of rains, wind and sometimes thunderstorms in the whole province.
As shown in Table 65 - Tropical Cyclone Tracks (2008-2013), around thirteen (13) typhoons, eleven (11) topical depressions and eight (8) tropical storms affected the province of Basilan. Prevailing winds are from the southwest with a speed of 4 knots (7.4 km/h), refer Map 32-Tropical Cyclones Track (2008-2013).
On the other hand, incidence of tropical cyclones was reportedly happened in Barangay Cabengbeng in Sumisip Municipality and Barangay Pipil of Ungkaya Pukan Municipality which destroyed houses and damaged hectares of agricultural crops in 2008 and August 2011. No records of affected individual, Table 65.
Table 65 - Tropical Cyclone Tracks affected Basilan Province
Map 32 - Tropical Cyclones Track affected Basilan Province 2008 – 2013
3.6.4 Hazard/Disaster Damages to Physical and Natural Assets
The only accounted extent of damaged to physical assets are noted in Table 66, wherein the province recorded total of 117 houses destroyed by flash flood in 2013 and 68 houses were partially damaged. Roughly around PhP2.370 Million assessed value.
On the other hand, footbridge in Isabela City connecting two barangays partially collapsed and some vehicles were also affected due to flashflood. No monetary value was stipulated.
A total of 20 houses flushed-out during the Tsunami in1976, around PhP200 Thousand assessed damaged. However, other livelihood properties such as motor boats, bancas and vintas were also destroyed, but no value had been recorded from the local government units of Lantawan, Maluso, TABUAN-LASA and Hj. Muhtamad, Table 66.
For agriculture, however, it is estimated that eleven (11) hectares of productive rubber plantation were damaged and uprooted due to tropical cyclone, estimated amount of damaged was PhP 2 Million based on the report of Sumisip and Ungkaya Pukan Local Government Units.
Table 66 - Hazard/Disaster Damages to Physical and Natural Assets
3.6.5 Frequency of Worst Disaster Events
For the record, there were no worst natural disaster events that had happened in the province of Basilan.
The frequent typhoons or storms, southwest monsoon (habagat) or inter-tropical convergence zone (ITCZ), and heavy rains that directly hit Zamboanga Peninsula were also experienced by the province in 2008, 2009 (Tropical Storm Ondoy), in 2012 (Super Storm Pablo) and in 2013 (Super Typhoon Yolanda), Table 67.
While, flooding which devastated some barangays of the two component cities of Isabela and Lamitan and other municipalities is considered rare or occasional.
However, rain-induced landslides can be observed and felt frequently if monsoon rain hit the island province of Basilan.
While tsunami, storm surge, sea level rise, drought, cyclone and ground shaking that hit the province are infrequent.
Table 67 - Frequency of Worst Disaster Events
3.6.6 Climate Change Impacts Experienced in the Province
The data and evidence of effects of climate change in the island province of Basilan are all limited and based on available records, interviews and observations, shown in Table 68.
The impact of storm surge or typhoon that causes the heavy rainfall of the entire province has strongly contributed to the damaged in agri-forestry sector, health and the biodiversity of the province. It generated soil erosions, landslides, flooding, soil salinity, river siltation and even some beach erosion. And it partly contaminated the water supplies of Isabela City and Maluso Municipality.
On the hand, it also added to the increasing water borne diseases, gastro-intestinal diseases, and respiratory and skin diseases/allergies in some rural communities in the province. While on commuters, travel advisory for sea transport is posted.
The El Niňo (ENSO) or drought brought damages both to crops production and some agricultural nurseries/seedlings, while poultry and livestock experienced deaths. However, there was a high demand of water due to dehydration especially the children and senior citizens. Supply and distribution of water was also affected.
The decreased of water level in Kumalarang River has disrupted the Kumalarang Mini-Hydro Plant that supplies power to Lantawan Municipality and part of Isabela City and Maluso Municipality. Wherein, power consumption usage basically increased due to high temperature.
The forest mangroves that surround the island province proved its resistance to sea level rise and big waves that occurred in the coastal communities.
Table 68 - Climate Change Impacts Experienced in the Province
3.7 CLIMATE CHANGE PROJECTIONS
In the absence of records, the province of Basilan sourced-out and utilized the PAG-ASA data of Zamboanga Sibugay which is geographically closest to the province, using the baseline data for the period 1971 to 2000.
As presented below, the change in climate/weather temperature conditions during the projected years of 2020 and 2050 was critically used in the hazard assessment. The following findings of Climate Change Projections under high-range and medium-range emission scenarios can be interpreted in Tables, Figures and Maps.
3.7.1 Mean Temperature
As shown in Table 69 Projected Temperature increase (in °C) under high-range, and medium-range emission scenarios using the baseline data in 1971-2000 average values, that the mean temperature for the province of Basilan is expected to increase by 1°C in 2020 and by 1.9°C to 2°C in 2050.
Figure 5 shows the comparison of the projected temperature wherein the highest temperature can be observed on March-April-May (MAM) with 28.9 °C and 29.9°C by year 2020 and 2050, respectively.
There are varied movements in the magnitude and direction of the rainfall changes, both in 2020 and 2050. Projections of changes in rainfall during the rainy seasons JJA (June-July-August) and SON (September-October-Nov) will likely increase due to the frequent performance of the inter-tropical convergence Zone (ITCZ), southwest (Habagat) and the northeast (Amihan) monsoons in Mindanao particularly the nearby Zamboanga Areas, refer Table 69.
It is expected that by 2020 SON months, rainfall pegged at 688.90 while by 2050 SON months it goes down to 683.
Generally, there is reduction in rainfall in most parts of the province during the summer (MAM) season. The usually wet seasons become wetter with the usually dry seasons becoming also drier; and these could lead to more occurrences of floods and dry spells, respectively, Figure 6 - Projected Rainfall Change.
Based on Mapping Philippine Vulnerability to Environmental Disasters (DENR-Manila Observatory) and as shown in the Map 33 - Risk to Projected Rainfall Change Map, indicates that the province of Basilan is high in rainfall change.
Table 69 - Projected Temperature (in °C) for 2020 and 2050 Under Medium-Range Emission Scenario, Baseline Data on 1971-2000 Average Values
Table 70 - Projected Rainfall Change (in °C) for 2020 and 2050 Under Medium-Range Emission Scenario, Baseline Data on 1971-2000 Average Values
3.7.3 Maximum & Minimum Temperatures
Based on Table 70, the projected maximum temperature in the province is expected to rise by 0.9 °C to 1°C in 2020 and by 1.8°C to 2.1°C in 2050 under medium-range emission scenarios. The hottest temperature months are MAM (March-April-May) ranges at 33.33 (2020) to 34.2 (2050), as shown in Figure 7 and Figure 8.
The risk to drought as shown in Map 34 indicates that the entire the province of Basilan is very high in temperatures and eventually more frequent in the future.
While projected minimum temperature for 2020 has increase by 1.1°C to 1.2°C while by 2050 has 2°C to 2.3°C under medium-range emission scenarios, Table 71. This result has affected the number of cold days and cool nights, mostly getting warmer.
Based on the pronouncement of PAG-ASA, the entire province will get warmer, much more relatively warmer summer months.
Table 71: Projected Maximum Temperature Increase (in °C) for 2020 and 2050 Under Medium-Range Emission Scenario, Baseline Data on 1971-2000 Average Values
Table 72: Projected Minimum Temperature Increase (in °C) for 2020 and 2050 Under Medium-Range Emission Scenario, Baseline Data on 1971-2000 Average Values
3.8 POTENTIAL EXPOSURES OF AREAS, POPULATION AND PHYSICAL ASSETS TO DIFFERENT TYPES OF HAZARDS
The following are the different types of hazards affecting the entire province with the corresponding Maps and potentially exposure of Areas, Population and Physical Assets.
3.8.1 Rain Induce Floods
Floods had been frequently occurring in the entire province for the past years depending on the degree or level of typhoon/storm. As presented in Table 73a and Table 73b- areas, population and physical assets affected and potentially exposed to flash floods and Map 35.
The largest land areas critically expose is Lamitan City followed by the municipalities of Sumisip and Hj. Mohammad Ajul, and Isabela City. The less affected areas are the municipalities of Akbar, Tuburan and Al-Barka. (Note: Provincial Disaster Risk Reduction Management Plan). While the two island municipalities of TABUAN-LASA and Hj. Muhtamad are not affected in terms of flash floods.
For household populations that are highly susceptible to flash floods are the communities of Isabela City and the municipalities of Hj. Mohammad Ajul, Maluso and Sumisip including Lamitan City.
Physical assets that are potentially expose are the commercial centers, health centers, residentials, road/bridges and agricultural lands.
Table 73a: Potential Exposure of Areas, Population and Physical Assets to RAIN INDUCE FLOOD HAZARD
Table 73b: Potential Exposure of Population (Households, Male and Female) to RAIN INDUCE FLOOD HAZARD
3.8.2 Rain Induce Landslides (RIL)
Land areas that are highly exposed to landslides are Lamitan City and the municipalities of Ungkaya Pukan and Hji. Mohammad Ajul. While the city of Isabela and the municipality of Sumisip are less vulnerable to landslide refer to Table 74a, Table 74b and Map 36 – Geo Hazard.
However, in terms of population potentially exposed to landslide, Isabela City has the highest stake of susceptibility followed by Lamitan City. All other communities are less exposed. Damages in terms of physical assets are residentials and agricultural lands.
Table 74a : Potential Exposure of Areas, Population and Physical Assets to RAIN INDUCE LANDSLIDE HAZARD
Table 74b : Potential Exposure of Population (Households, Male and Female) to RAIN INDUCE LANDSLIDE HAZARD
Generally, since the province is an island and composed of different islands and islets, tsunami is inevitable. As shown in Table 75a, Table 75b and plotted in Map 37 - Tsunami Hazard Map, the scale of land areas exposure can be noticed in all coastal communities. Much exposed are the Island Municipalities of Hj. Muhtamad and TABUAN-LASA including the adjacent municipalities of Lantawan, Maluso and Sumisip. While on the eastern side of the province, potentially exposed are the municipalities of Hji. Mohammad Ajul and Al-Barka. The two cities are also considered vulnerable to tsunami.
In terms of population, Isabela City is the most potentially affected by tsunami since it’s the most populated area and the island municipalities of Hj. Muhtamad and TABUAN-LASA including Lamitan City. Other municipalities are also potentially exposed to this danger.
Tsunami hazard is also expected to damage commercial centers, residentials, infrastructures (roads, concrete/foot bridges, wooden wharf, rock coast way, and medical/social centers), facilities, agricultural land/crops and fish pens and other related livelihood activities.
Table 75a : Potential Exposure of Areas, Population and Physical Assets to TSUNAMI HAZARD
Table 75b : Potential Exposure of Population (Households, Male and Female) to TSUNAMI HAZARD
3.8.4 Storm Surge (Super Typhoon) / 3m - Sea Level Rise (SLR)
One of the effects of climate change and global warming is the sea level rise (SLR) and the storm surge. The slowly rising of sea level will be eventually felt by the whole island province. The island municipalities of Hji. Muhtamad and TABUAN-LASA along the coastal areas of Lantawan and Maluso municipalities, and Isabela City are areas highly susceptible to sea level rise and storm surge at a projection of 3 meters increase of water level refer Table 76a, Table 76b and Map 38.
Potentially exposed areas can be also noticed in the eastern side of the province, these are the municipalities of Hji. Mohammad Ajul, Tuburan and Al-Barka, and Lamitan City.
Isabela City is the most potentially affected by Storm Surge/ 3m - Sea Level Rise (SLR) in terms of population since it’s the most populated area and the island municipalities of Hj. Muhtamad and TABUAN-LASA including Lamitan City.
As projected, the hazards will damage commercial centers, residentials, infrastructures (roads, concrete/foot bridges, wooden wharf, roack coast way, and medical/social centers), facilities, agricultural land/crops and fish pens and other related livelihood activities.
Table 76a : Potential Exposure of Areas, Population and Physical Assets to STORM SURGE (SUPER TYPHOON) HAZARD
Table 76b : Potential Exposure of Population (Households, Male and Female) to STORM SURGE (SUPER TYPHOON) HAZARD
3.8.5 Earthquake / Earthshaking
The proximity of Basilan province to Cotabato Trench on the East and Sulu Trench on the West makes it highly susceptible to earthquakes or earthshaking. These trenches are capable of producing major earthquakes and tsunamis refer Map 39 – Distribution of Active Faults & Trenches in the Philippines and Table 77.
The extent of land areas exposed and physical assets damaged are potentially tremendous. It will totally affect the whole island province and other islands/islets. The entire populations are seemingly helpless and loss of personal properties and lives are certain.
Table 77: Potential Exposure of Areas, Population and Physical Assets to GROUND SHAKING/EARTHQUAKE HAZARD
3.8.6 Man-Made Hazards
a) Armed Conflict
Aside from natural hazards, the human-induced disaster is a hazard that poses the biggest threat to Basilan Province. These are armed civil strife, crime and violence, land/clan feud (rido), political/election related conflict.
When martial law was declared in 1970, armed conflict and violence has been recycling brought about by bloody fighting between the Armed Forces of the Philippines/Philippine National Police againts the seld-made rebels, moro splinter groups, and the lawless Abu Sayaf influenced by political and socio-economic factors, among others. These situation continues to create tremendous havoc and atrocities among the population in the province, which cause forcible evacuation or massive internally diplacement of population, with most of the fighting incident occuring in many far flung municipalities.
Kidnappings, extrotions, ambush, bombings and other acts of terrorism consequently caused public anxiety, cost of lives, destruction of properties and sometimes socio-political stability.
The frequency, intensity and variability of natural and human-induced hazards coupled with high poverty incidence and other vulnerabilities also have heightened the compelling need for the region to adopt Disaster Risk Reduction and Management (DRRM) and Climate Change Adaptation (CCA).
3.8.7 Hazards Maps with Levels of Susceptibility
188.8.131.52 Topography and Slope
Basilan mainly has a rolling terrain with flat lands located mostly along the coastal areas and the slope becomes stiffer as it goes into the central highlands. The highest point of the province with an elevation of 960 meters above sea level, while the coastal areas of the islands and islets recorded the lowest point of 20 meters elevation
In terms of slope variation, Map 40 indicates that about 40% of the land area is considered lowlands ranging from 0-8% slope and are areas mostly along the coastline. While 48% are identified as highlands (8-30%) and about 12% are categorized in the uplands (30% up) and are mostly located in the central hinterlands, Table 78.
Categorically, upland areas with a steep slope of 30% to 50% more are highly susceptible to landslide, especially areas had recent mudslides. For highland with 8% to 30% slope, it is moderately susceptible to soil erosion especially Lamitan City were presence of illegal loggers and poor land cover near the river channel.
For flat and low lying areas with 0% to 3% gradient there is a high incidence of flooding. While low land areas are still susceptible to flood threat due to the rising of water level in the rivers that will be brought by heavy rain and high tide.
Table 78 : Slope Classification
3.8.8 Existing Policies, Laws, Regulations and Plans and Programs and Projects of the Province on CCA and DRRM
Table 79. Existing Policies, Laws, Regulations and Plans and Programs and Projects of the Province on CCA and DRRM