1.1 MAINSTREAMING CONTEXT
The Provincial Development and Physical Framework Plan (PDPFP) mainstreaming Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) and Climate Change Adaptation (CCA) is basically comprised of the following planning phases or steps and plans which content the following; 1) Overview of the Mainstream, 2) Vision and Mission Setting, 3) Planning Environment Assessment, 4) Land Use and Physical Framework, 5) Development Issues and Problems, Goals, Objectives Setting, 6) Sectoral Strategies, Programs, Projects and Activities (PPAs) Formulation, and 7) Plan Implemetation Mechanism. The important information for mainstreaming in the PDPFP covers the key results and findings of the Disaster Risk Assessment (DRA); Climate Change Vulnerability Assessment (CCVA); and the measures to reduce disaster risk (DRRM); and adapt to climate change vulnerability (CCA).
Mainstreaming DRA operationally means extracting, summarizing and synthesizing the highlights of the DRA/CCVA and weaving them in the right sections of the PDPFP to enhance the plan and make it disaster risk and climate change sensitive and responsive. “Weaving” refers to three ways of mainstreaming: 1) inserting phrases, sentences and paragraphs in certain parts of the plan; 2) integrating a whole section or subsection on DR and CC concerns in selected chapters or sections; and 3) providing instructions in integrating CC and DR concerns in the planning process or analysis for coming out with significant results and findings. By mainstreaming, the planning and decision-making of local authorities systematically carry with it and directly address the critical concerns on disaster risk and climate change impacts on locations, population and natural and physical assets of localities. The chances and opportunities of saving lives and properties become an integral part of policy, decision and planning process of LGUs.
The Mainstreaming approach adopted in these guidelines builds upon the results of the past efforts of NEDA RDCS in conducting a series of training and workshops on DRA preparation and CCVA planning over the last five years. The experiences and lessons learned in these past training efforts were considered in the preparation of the set of guidelines under this report. For instance, the four steps DRA process (hazard characterization, consequence analysis, risk estimation and evaluation) published in the NEDA 2008 guidelines and further refined in succeeding supplemental guidelines was adopted with some modifications in this report. The results of DRA including maps prepared in previous training and workshops and the PDPFPs previously prepared are used “as is” in mainstreaming or updated in the light of new information gathered or generated
In general, the Hazard Characterization and Consequences Analysis using past records on disaster events are mainstreamed under the Planning Environment chapter while the DRA and CCVA results and findings are mainstreamed under the Issues and challenges chapter.
The DRRM and CCA recommendations to address the Issues and Problems will be the substantial inputs in the Programs, Projects and Activities (PPAs) of the Plan. In between these two planning phases is the Strategy component of the Plan which is broken down into Sectoral Development Strategies and Spatial Development Strategies for finer analysis. The results and findings of the DRA and CCVA including Situation Analysis (Issues and Problems) will serve as inputs in the formulation of the sectoral and spatial development strategies. These strategies are finally translated into PPAs thereby completing the planning cycle of the PDPFP. Outline is sourced at NEDA DRM/CCA Mainstreaming Project.
1.2 MAINSTREAMING COVERAGE
The Provincial Development and Physical Framework Plan (PDPFP) mainstreaming DRR and CCA is a ten-year (2014-2023) Medium Term Development Plan (MTDP), guided by a long-term vision.
The Planning Environment component of the PDPFP describes the physical, economic, social environmental and institutional status of the province that are analyzed to serve as inputs in the identification of issues, problems, strategies and PPAs.
These components of the Plan broadly encompass the five sectors listed in Table 1, namely: Hazard Characterization and consequences Analysis, Population, Economic Activity, Physical Resources, Income/Access to Services and Land Use. However, assessment of these core elements and their sectors are done on a different scope and plane. Variations are introduced in the treatment of the core elements and corresponding sectors centering on the physical and spatial aspects of disaster risk and climate change impacts.
The original PDPFP core elements and the sectors are decomposed into specific topics and subtopics to make the mainstreaming process more illustrative and refined. For example, existing land use will be analyzed separately from proposed spatial strategy and proposed land use to obtain more meaningful results such as the identification of current and proposed land uses that are highly exposed to natural hazards and long term threats of climate change. The method for analyzing the existing and potential threats of hazards is done by overlaying hazard maps with existing and proposed land uses separately.
Instead of just analyzing Economic sector in a rather broad dimension, the six sectors critical to disaster risk and climate changes are instead covered, namely: agriculture and fisheries, forestry, biodiversity, coastal and marine, water resources and health. Aside from these critical sectors, lifeline and critical infrastructure such as transportation, power, water and communication infrastructures, educational, waste disposal, public safety, and health facilities are also analyzed in terms of their exposure to various types of hazards and climate change impacts.
The level and depth of mainstreaming analysis in the core element and sectors of the plan will certainly vary depending on the significance of their exposure to different hazards. Like for instance, the exposure of agriculture and fishery to the impacts of natural hazards and climate change are of greater concern because of their more damaging effects than the exposure of intact protection forest and pasture land uses which are more resilient. Likewise, the impacts of flooding on residential land use are far more damaging that those of natural parks and green spaces.
1.3 PLAN OBJECTIVES/CONTEXT
The Plan is intended to:
- Mainstream and harmonize the PDPFP and the DRR and CCA;
- Rationalize the distribution of population and settlements;
- Protect and maintain the integrity of the environment;
- Optimize the utilization of natural and physical resources; and
- Guide the location and direction of public and private investments in the province.
1.4 OUTLINE OF THE PLAN
The PDPFP mainstreaming DRR and CCA is presented and organized as follows:
- Chapter I presents the mainstreaming context and coverage, plan objectives/context, outline of the plan, historical background and the framework agreement on the bangsamoro.
- Chapter II states the Vision and Mission of the Province of Basilan, reflective of the development aspirations of its leaders and people.
- Chapter III discusses the planning environment, stating the hazard characterization and consequences analysis, describing and analyzing the social, economic and physical environment of the province that serves as bases for identifying development issues or problems, goals and objectives, strategies, programs and activities.
- Chapter IV explains and describes the land uses and physical framework including the built-up areas, potential expansions and overall development strategy.
- Chapter V narrates the development issues or problems, goals and objectives that covers DRR & CCA, land uses, economy, services and utilities.
- Chapter VI states the sectoral strategies, programs, projects and activities (ppas) that undertakes the DRR & CCA, land uses, economy, services and utilities as well as the spatial strategies and list of priority projects to attain the Plan’s overall objectives.
- Chapter VII states the implementation mechanism such as the integration/endorsement, review, adoption, and approval process. Monitoring and evaluation is also explained and presented
1.5 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND
The ancient name of Basilan Island was Tagime, named after a Datu who once ruled a big part of the island before the Spaniards came to Basilan. In the long past, Basilan had other names. It used to be named Uleyan, derived from a mountain located at the heart of the island. Later, it was changed to Matangal, also named after Mt. Matangal in Tuburan. Other names given were Puh Gulangan (island of forest); Umus Tambun (fertile land); Kumalarang, named after a river; Baunuh Peggesan; and later it was changed to Basih Balan.
The name Basih Balan was derived after a heavy fight between the natives led by Sultan Kudarat, a great Muslim leader and his brave Muslim warriors, Apuh Menggah, Apuh Dagang, and Apuh Batilan against the Spanish invaders from nearby Zamboanga. After a fierce resistance, the natives successfully repulsed the invaders. The victory played a major role in changing the name of the island into “Basih Balan”, derived from their legendary weapon called “pira” which was made of basih, meaning iron and balan, meaning magnetic. By combining the two words, it became Basih Balan. But when the early historians wrote the name of the province, it was shortened to Basilan. The name Basilan remained unchanged up to the present.
1.5.1 Geographical Coverage
The political boundaries of the province define the primary level of geographical analysis. Other provinces of the Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao (ARMM) and the country are also included to provide benchmarks in analyses.
Cities and municipalities inputs and data will be the focus of analysis although barangay-level data may be used, whatever applicable.
Isabela City is a special case. By virtue of R.A. 9054, the Expanded ARMM Law, Basilan became part of the ARMM except Isabela City which remained with the Zamboanga Peninsula region. But in the planning dimension, Isabela’s location and structure as center of governance, industry, commerce, and services make its demographics, resources, and performance indispensable inputs.
1.6 THE FRAMEWORK AGREEMENT ON THE BANGSAMORO (FAB)
The Framework Agreement on the Bangsamoro is an agreement between the Government of the Philippines (GPH) and the Moro Islamic Liberation Front (MILF) that aims to end the armed conflict between government forces and the MILF. The FAB lays down the principles for the establishment of an autonomous political entity for the Bangsamoro, as a way of recognizing their distinct history and their aspirations as a distinct people.
The parties agreed that the status quo is not acceptable. One of the more important steps in changing the present situation is the establishment of the “Bangsamoro”— the new autonomous political entity in Mindanao. The Bangsamoro will have the necessary powers to run its own government, including the powers necessary for taxation, availment of funds and the creation of wealth, and sharing of revenues from the utilization, development and exploitation of natural resources within its territory.
In recognition of the distinct history, culture, and aspirations of the Bangsamoro, the Bangsamoro Government shall enjoy stronger autonomy compared to the local government units of the Philippines. The Bangsamoro shall also have a different form of government, while the rest of the Philippines has a “presidential” form. In the parliamentary form of government, there will be a closer relationship between the legislative and the executive branches of government. In addition, the Bangsamoro Government shall have competence over the Shari’a justice system, and indigenous systems of conflict resolution.
The ARMM shall remain as an autonomous political entity unless and until it replaced by the Bangsamoro political entity through the ratification of the Bangsamoro Basic Law (BBL). Once the BBL will be ratified, the ARMM shall be abolished and in its place shall be established the Bangsamoro. (Source: OPAPP)
As of to date, the Government of the Philippines (GPH) and the Moro Islamic Liberation Front (MILF) is in high expectations for the immediate approval of the Bangsamoro Basic Law by the Congress on or before 2015. In this case, this document sooner or later be reviewed and discussed in order to commensurate with the direction and priorities of the new Bangsamoro Government.